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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) manifests with a blockage the coronary arteries, usually due to plaque buildup, and has a serious impact on the human life. Atherosclerotic plaques, including fibrous plaques, lipid plaques, and calcified plaques can lead to occurrence of CAD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is employed in the clinical practice as it clearly provides a detailed display of the lesion plaques, thereby assessing the patient’s condition. Analyzing the OCT images manually is a very tedious and time-consuming task for the clinicians. Therefore, automatic segmentation of the coronary OCT images is necessary. OBJECTIVE: In view…of the good utility of Unet network in the segmentation of medical images, the present study proposed the development of a Unet network based on Sk-Conv and spatial pyramid pooling modules to segment the coronary OCT images. METHODS: In order to extract multi-scale features, these two modules were added at the bottom of UNet. Meanwhile, ablation experiments are designed to verify each module is effective. RESULTS: After testing, our model achieves 0.8935 on f1 score and 0.7497 on mIOU. Compared to the current advanced models, our model performs better. CONCLUSION: Our model achieves good results on OCT sequences.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: 125 I BT is an effective radiotherapy for prostate cancer. However, comparison data of GI and GU toxicities between BT, BT + EBRT, and EBRT-alone patient groups is limited. OBJECTIVE: To define the GI and GU toxicities in prostate cancer to prevent adverse events after treatment. METHODS: We searched published studies in PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases up to December 31, 2022. The endpoints were the RRs of GI and GU toxicities. Pooled data were assessed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fifteen eligible…studies were included into this analysis. LDR-BT had significantly lower RRs than LDR-BT + EBRT for acute GI (2.13; 95% CI, 1.22–3.69; P = 0.007) and late GI toxicities (3.96; 95% CI, 1.23–12.70; P = 0.02). Moreover, EBRT had significantly higher RRs than LDR-BT for acute GU (2.32; 95% CI, 1.29–4.15; P = 0.005) and late GU toxicities (2.38; 95% CI, 1.27–4.44; P = 0.007). HDR-BT had significantly higher RRs for acute GU toxicities than LDR-BT alone (0.30; 95% CI, 0.23–0.40; P < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: The results implied that BT with and without EBRT can result in both GI and GU toxicities in patients with prostate cancer, with LDR-BT leading to a poorer urinary function than EBRT.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals with gait disturbances, such as that post-stroke, are discharged home to undergo outpatient rehabilitation. Rehabilitation in the community is not as effective as that in hospital, due to long travel times and short program duration. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed rail unit structure, with the aim of assisting home indoor assistive mobility system (HIAMS) development, allowing patients to undergo gait-related rehabilitation training at home. METHODS: The HIAMS consists of a mobile rail running around the whole room, a turn-table for movement between rails, and a weight-supporting component. Structural analysis was performed using…the Abaqus/CAE solution (Version 6.14, Dassault systems, Inc.) to verify device safety, according to the load applied to the rail and turn-table units. The load was applied vertically at 150 kg to reflect the weight of potential users. RESULTS: Structural analysis was performed on the weight-supporting components, which was consist of turn-table case, bearing components (center, left), connective bracket and rail rollers. The safety factors of each components were estimated as 1.31, 5.39 (bearing, center), 8.45 (bearing, left), 1.43 and 3.61 in sequence. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a safety factor of ⩾ 1.3 for the key system units, suggesting this technology is safe for use in the home rehabilitation training of individuals with gait impairment post-ICU stay.
Keywords: Assistive mobility system, rail unit development, indoor assistive mobility
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides rich pathological information which is of great significance in diagnosis and treatment of brain lesions. However, obtaining HR brain MRI images comes at the cost of extending scan time and using sophisticated expensive instruments. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to reconstruct HR MRI images from low-resolution (LR) images by developing a deep learning based super-resolution (SR) method. METHODS: We propose a feedback network with self-attention mechanism (FNSAM) for SR reconstruction of brain MRI images. Specifically, a feedback network is built to correct shallow features by using…a recurrent neural network (RNN) and the self-attention mechanism (SAM) is integrated into the feedback network for extraction of important information as the feedback signal, which promotes image hierarchy. RESULTS: Experimental results show that the proposed FNSAM obtains more reasonable SR reconstruction of brain MRI images both in peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM) than some state-of-the-arts. CONCLUSION: Our proposed method is suitable for SR reconstruction of MRI images.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the advent of 5G and the era of Big Data, the rapid development of medical information technology around the world, the massive application of electronic medical records and cases, and the digitization of medical equipment and instruments, a large amount of data has accumulated in the database system of hospitals, which includes clinical diagnosis data and hospital management data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the classification effects of different machine learning algorithms on medical datasets so as to better explore the value of machine learning methods in aiding medical diagnosis. METHODS:…The classification datasets of four different medical fields in the University of California Irvine machine learning database were used as the research object. Also, six categories of classification models based on the Bayesian theorem idea, integrated learning idea, and rule-based and tree-based idea were constructed using the Weka platform. RESULTS: The between-group experiments showed that the Random Forest algorithm achieved the best results on the Indian liver disease patient dataset (ILPD), delivery cardiotocography (CADG), and lymphatic tractography (LYMP) datasets, followed by Bagging and partition and regression tree. In the within-group algorithm comparison experiments, the Bagging algorithm achieved better results than other algorithms based on the integration idea for 11 metrics on all datasets, mainly focusing on 2 binary datasets. Logit Boost had only 7 metrics with significant performance, and the best algorithm was Rotation Forest, with 28 metrics achieving optimal values. Among the algorithms based on tree ideas, the logistic model tree algorithm achieved optimal results on all metrics on the mammographic dataset (MAGR). The classification performance of BFTree, J48, and Random Tree was poor on each dataset. The best algorithm was Random Forest on the ILPD, CADG, and LYMP datasets with 27 metrics reaching the optimum. CONCLUSION: Machine learning algorithms have good application value in disease prediction and can provide a reference basis for disease diagnosis.
Keywords: Algorithms, comparison, machine learning, medical data, prediction, Weka
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Microglia express phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. However, there are few studies on the interference of PI3K signal pathway in microglia. OBJECTIVE: The study goal is to gain a better understanding of the mechanism by which EA affects synapses provides insights into how electroacupuncture (EA) modulates synaptic plasticity in learning and memory. METHODS: Rat models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were used to explore the effects of EA on microglial PI3K pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and…LTP, and the target and mechanism underlying the effects of EA on PI3K from the perspective of protein ubiquitination. RESULTS: EA induced microglial BDNF expression by activating the PI3K-AKT pathway, thereby facilitating LTP and synaptic plasticity. EA inhibited lincRNA 02023 to rescue the binding of WWP2 to PTEN, thereby promoting PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. CONCLUSION: The mechanism of EA improving the learning and memory ability of PTSD rats may be that it can promote the competitive combination of WWP2 and PTEN by inhibiting Linc RNA02023, and then lead to microglial PI3K and its pathway activation, BDNF up-regulation, and finally induce LTP and repair damaged synaptic plasticity.
Keywords: PTSD, electroacupuncture, long-term potentiation, microglia, protein ubiquitination, long intergenic noncoding RNAs
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Eye exam diagnosis is one of the early detection methods for eye diseases. However, such a method is dependent on expensive and unpredictable optical equipment. OBJECTIVE: The eye exam can be re-emerged through an optometric lens attached to a smartphone and come to read the diseases automatically. Therefore, this study aims to provide a stable and predictable model with a given dataset representing the target group domain and develop a new method to identify eye disease with accurate and stable performance. METHODS: The ResNet-18 models pre-trained on ImageNet data composed of 1,000…everyday objects were employed to learn the dataset’s features and validate the test dataset separated from the training dataset. RESULTS: A proposed model showed high training and validation accuracy values of 99.1% and 96.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The designed model could produce a robust and stable eye disease discrimination performance.
Keywords: Deep learning model, image data, eye exam
Abstract: BACKGROUND: As a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, the central effect of acupuncture has received increasing attention. Functional brain networks can provide connectivity information among brain regions. OBJECTIVE: The study goal is to explore the regulatory effect of acupuncture on the brain functional network. METHODS: This paper analyzes the electroencephalography (EEG)-based power spectrum and brain functional network elicited by acupuncture at Quchi (LI 11). RESULTS: The power spectrum results showed that acupuncture at LI 11 decreased the energy in the alpha frequency, mainly in the central region, left parietal lobe,…left temporal lobe and left frontal lobe. Moreover, functional brain networks converted from the magnitude-squared coherence matrix in the alpha band are reconstructed. The results show that acupuncture did not alter the basic properties of the brain functional connection network. During acupuncture, the average node degree, average clustering coefficient, and small-world property of the brain functional connection network decreased after acupuncture compared with that before it. However, the average characteristic path length increased after acupuncture compared with before. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at LI 11 altered the brain’s electrical activity. In the meantime, this acupuncture reduced the network’s internal connectivity and information transfer efficiency.
Keywords: Acupuncture, functional brain networks, electroencephalography, Quchi (LI 11)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Haemorrhage of pancreas is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and currently there is no clinical satisfactory treatment for this disorder. OBIECTIVE: The present study envisaged to treat the haemorrhage of pancreas caused by pseudoaneurysm rupture using interventional super-selective coil impregnation therapy, so as to achieve a better treatment efficacy. METHODS: Six cases presenting haemorrhage of pancreas were employed for the study, including 5 cases caused by splenic artery pseudoaneurysm and 1 case caused by superior pancreatic artery pseudoaneurysm. In all 6 patients the femoral artery was punctured using Seldinger femoral…artery puncture and intubation technique. Subsequently, a catheter was inserted into the abdominal trunk and the contrast medium was injected, and the pseudoaneurysm was developed. A coil was then inserted into the distal end and proximal end of the pseudoaneurysm, respectively, leading to the elimination of the pseudoaneurysm. RESULTS: All 6 patients with pancreatic haemorrhage were implanted with coil at the distal and proximal end of the aneurysm, until the aneurysm disappeared during intraoperative angiography. Further, clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, melena and hematemesis disappeared after the operation. No recurrence of the symptoms was observed in the studied population. CONCLUSION: A 100% treatment outcome can be achieved in patients with pseudoaneurysm-induced haemorrhage of pancreas using interventional super-selective coil embolization.
Keywords: Hemorrage of pancreatic duct, pseudoaneurysm, embolization, super-selective
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chaihu Shugan powder (CSP) is a prevalent prescription product used in the treatment functional dyspepsia (FD) in China. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms involved in the treatment of FD remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the key components of CSP and their molecular targets and mechanisms in the treatment of FD. METHODS: Active compounds for CSP were identified from the TCMSP and SymMap databases, and the relevant targets were predicted. FD-related targets were obtained from the GeneCards and CTD database. In addition, using the protein-protein interactions (PPI) analysis, the common targets were obtained.…Furthermore, the compound-target networks were created with Cytoscape. Finally, molecular docking was performed to identify the core targets and validate them experimentally. RESULTS: In total, 78 active compounds and 671 related targets of CSP were obtained. PPI network analysis identified 15 key FD-related compound targets. Molecular docking revealed that sitosterol and hyndarin exhibited good binding activities with AKT1 and IL6, respectively. Animal experiments have shown that CSP effectively increased the protein levels of AKT1 and reduced the serum levels of IL-6 in FD rats. CONCLUSION: This study provides a theoretical evidence for the analysis of the molecular targets and mechanisms of the action of CSP in FD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In order to reduce the impact of CT radiation, low-dose CT is often used, but low-dose CT will bring more noise, affecting image quality and subsequent 3D reconstruction results. OBJECTIVE: The study presents a reconstruction method based on wavelet transform-total variation (WT-TV) for low-dose CT. METHODS: First, the low-dose CT images were denoised using WT and TV denoising methods. The WT method could preserve the features, and the TV method could preserve the edges and structures. Second, the two sets of denoised images were fused so that the features, edges, and structures…could be preserved at the same time. Finally, FBP reconstruction was performed to obtain the final 3D reconstruction result. RESULTS: The results show that The WT-TV method can effectively denoise low-dose CT and improve the clarity and accuracy of 3D reconstruction models. CONCLUSION: Compared with other reconstruction methods, the proposed reconstruction method successfully addressed the issue of low-dose CT noising by further denoising the CT images before reconstruction. The denoising effect of low-dose CT images and the 3D reconstruction model were compared via experiments.
Keywords: 3D reconstruction, filtered back-projection, low-dose CT, total variation wavelet, transform
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a malignant tumor originating from the bronchial mucosa or glands of the lung. Early lung cancer patients often have no obvious symptoms, but early detection and treatment have an important clinical significance for prognostic effect. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the important means in the diagnosis of lung cancer. In order to better solve the problem of diagnosis efficiency, and reduce the rate of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis, computer aided diagnosis are employed in the accurate localization and segmentation of pulmonary nodules through imaging diagnostics, image processing technology, and other clinical means.…OBJECTIVE: This present study was envisaged to establish an intelligent segmentation model of pulmonary nodules to improve the accuracy of early screening for lung cancer patients. METHODS: Compared with the traditional segmentation model of fully convolutional neural network, the U-Net++ algorithm based on feature-weighted integration (WI-U-Net++) effectively utilized the feature weight information, adopted the adaptive weighted method for weighted integration, and performed an intelligent segmentation of the anatomical structure and image details, which was applied in the auxiliary diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in CT images. Standard chest X-ray phantom was selected as CT scanning objects, and 30 spherical and irregular simulated nodules were built into them, respectively. CT images were collected by setting different tube voltage and noise index, and randomly included into the training set, validation set and test set at a ratio of 8:1:1. RESULTS: The experimental results showed that the segmentation accuracy of WI-U-Net++ algorithm for spheroid nodules and irregular nodules was 98.75% and 83.47%, respectively, which was better than that of U-Net and U-Net++ algorithm. In the auxiliary diagnosis, the recall rate of the WI-U-Net++ algorithm for spheroid nodules and irregular nodules was 93.47% and 84.52%, respectively. The accuracy of the benign or malignant identification was 80.27%, and the AUC was 0.9342. CONCLUSION: U-Net++ algorithm based on feature-weighted integration could improve the segmentation effect of pulmonary nodules. Especially in the case of irregular nodules with malignant signs, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was significantly improved, and the level of differential diagnosis between benign and malignant was improved.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Protein-ligand binding affinity is of significant importance in structure-based drug design. Recently, the development of machine learning techniques has provided an efficient and accurate way to predict binding affinity. However, the prediction performance largely depends on how molecules are represented. OBJECTIVE: Different molecular descriptors are designed to capture different features. The study aims to identify the optimal circular fingerprints for predicting protein-ligand binding affinity with matched neural network architectures. METHODS: Extended-connectivity fingerprints (ECFP) and protein-ligand extended connectivity fingerprints (PLEC) encode circular atomic and bonding connectivity environments with the preference for intra- and…inter-molecular features, respectively. Densely-connected neural networks are employed to map the circular fingerprints of protein-ligand complexes to binding affinities RESULTS: The performance of neural networks is sensitive to the parameters used for ECFP and PLEC fingerprints. The R2_score of the evaluated ECFP and PLEC fingerprints reaches 0.52 and 0.49, higher than that of the improperly set ECFP and PLEC fingerprints with R2_score of 0.45 and 0.38, respectively. Additionally, compared to the predictions from the standalone fingerprints, the ECFP+PLEC conjoint ones slightly improve the prediction accuracy with R2_score of approximately 0.55. CONCLUSION: Both intra- and inter-molecular structural features encoded in the circular fingerprints contribute to the protein-ligand binding affinity. Optimizing the parameters of ECFP and PLEC can enhance performance. The conjoint fingerprint scheme can be generally extended to other molecular descriptors for enhanced feature engineering and improved predictive performance.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Retromolar canal (RMC) arises from the mandibular canal (MC) behind the second or third molar and travels anterosuperiorly to a retromolar foramen (RMF). RMCs and RMFs have generally been ignored in anatomical textbooks and have rarely been reviewed or studied in the anatomical and dental literature until the last decades. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize RMF in a Chinese population concerning its incidence, origin, and classification via anatomical study and periapical radiography. METHODS: 123 dry adult Chinese mandibles were collected to observe the incidence of RMFs. RMFs were determined using a…steel wire 0.5 mm in diameter. The passways or origins of the retromolar canal (RMC) were determined and classified via periapical radiography. For each RMF, two dentists independently measured the diameter and its distances to the lingual cortex, the buccal cortex, and the distal edge of the last tooth (or the alveolar fossa) using a vernier caliper. RESULTS: The incidence of RMFs was 31.71%. The average RMF diameter was 0.78 ± 0.27 mm. From RMF, the distance was 4.27 ± 1.87 mm to the lingual cortex, 8.61 ± 2.23 mm to the buccal cortex, and 7.84 ± 3.87 mm to the distal edge of the last tooth (or the alveolar fossa). RMCs were classified into MC type originating from the mandibular canal and AF type originating from the alveolar fossa. The diameters of MC ones were more significant than those of AF ones. There was no apparent correlation between the existence of the third molar and the presence of an RMF. CONCLUSION: The incidence of RMFs in Chinese may be about one-third, which is a potential factor in the onset of surgery accidents. RMCs can be classified into two types by their origins. One of them is MC, which originates from the mandibular canal, and the other is AF, which originates from the alveolar fossa.
Keywords: Retromolar foramen, retromolar canal, mandibular canal, radiographic study
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Thumb rubbing is one of the widely accepted massage techniques, owing to its simple and effective operation. Exploring the biomechanical characteristics of the thumb rubbing method can assist the understanding of the operating characteristics of manipulation, thereby improvising the therapeutic role of manipulation. OBJECTIVE: To study the kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the thumb kneading method from the biomechanical point of view, and to quantitatively analyze the key points of thumb kneading operation. METHODS: We explored the biomechanical characteristics of the thumb kneading operation by an analysis of the parameters scored by…the experts and students using the “thumb kneading data glove and data collection system”. RESULTS: (1) Force trajectory: The expert group showed a regular force trajectory compared to the student group, with a stable thumb suction position, small drift and concentrated force. (2) Force value: The average force value of the expert group was concentrated in the range 0.614 ± 0.041 kg, while the average force value of the student group was concentrated in the range 0.650 ± 0.146 kg and the difference was not statistically significant. (3) Frequency: The frequency of the expert group was mainly concentrated in the range 134.280 ± 39.106 times/min, while that of the student group was 66.04 ± 23.651 times/min, (P < 0.05). (4) Period: The operation cycle during the thumb kneading of the expert and student groups was mainly concentrated in the range of 0.476 ± 0.117 s and (0.990 ± 0.259) s, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the technical operation of the expert group was more stable and standardized than that of the student group. It was found that the force value was inversely proportional to the frequency of the operation. In the “circular rotation” operation of the thumb rubbing method, the force value conversion degree of different parts of the thumb reflected the motion trajectory. Furthermore, the “circular rotation” operation performed by the expert group was better than the student group. The study of the parameters, including the angle of frequency, period and force value can reflect the biomechanical characteristics of thumb rubbing method to a significant extent.
Keywords: biomechanics, thumb rubbing, mechanical characteristics
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A representative symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is resting tremor. The clinical manifestation of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) is similar to it of PD, though the phenomenology of SWEDD is not well known. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the resting tremor of 9 SWEDD patients was quantitatively compared with that of 11 PD patients. METHODS: Four 3-axis gyro sensors were attached on the index finger, thumb, dorsum of the hand, and arm of the more tremulous side. Root mean square (RMS) angular speed and angular displacement as well as…irregularity of angular speed and displacement were derived from the sensor data. RESULTS: Although disease duration and Hoehn and Yahr stages were comparable, SWEDD patients exhibited different tremor features from PD patients. Significantly faster RMS angular speed and greater RMS angular displacement (p < 0.05) were observed in PD patients than in SWEDD patients. The irregularity of angular displacement of pitch direction at the dorsum of the hand was greater in SWEDD patients than in PD patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that quantitative indices obtained from resting tremor task could be important biomarkers for identifying potential patients with SWEDD among patients diagnosed with PD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a mature scanning technique. With high sensitivity in detecting cerebral infractions, it has become an essential part of the clinical evaluation of acute stroke. However, with the update in medical ideals and treatment, clinicians are now focusing on distinguishing between reversible and irreversible brain tissue damage rather than detecting ischaemic lesions alone. OBJECTIVE: We supposed that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) could classify heterogeneous DWI lesions, deepening the understanding of tissue injury. We systematically studied the different parameters of DKI in acute stroke patients in the literature. METHODS:…We collected 41 patients (26 male, 15 female), including different infarctions with acute cerebral infarction in different brain regions. Of all patients, 20 were single-infarction, while others were multi-infarctions. In this paper, we categorized acute cerebral infarction lesions into two types according to the parametric characteristics of both DKI and DWI. Type I means the DKI and DWI were matched, and Type II means the DKI and DWI were mismatched. Based on each parametric map, the region of interest (ROI) is outlined in each most severe lesion area (as large as possible in the center of the lesion). In the control group, ROIs of the same size are located in the corresponding regions of the contralateral hemisphere. RESULTS: In both Type I and Type II, all parameters conform to a normal distribution. An independent sample T-test was used to compare the differences between each group. In Type I, we found the FA, MD, Da, Dr, MK and Ka values were statistically different (P < 0.05), while in Type II, only the MK and Ka values were statistically different (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: DKI, compared to DWI, can provide more imaging information about intracranial ischemic infarction, which can deepen the understanding of the mechanism of ischemic tissue damage. Our classification of the brain acute stroke lesions by DKI parameters and DWI may help us rediscover the real core of infraction.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The incidence rate for migraine is 12% worldwide, and recurrence is common, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of patients. OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of Shallow Puncture and More Twirling method of acupuncture in treating migraine and its impact on serum 5-HT and β -EP. METHODS: A total of 76 patients with migraine were randomized into a control group and acupuncture group with 38 cases in each. In the control group, patients were orally administered flunarizine hydrochloride before sleep, 2 capsules once daily for 4 weeks.…In the acupuncture group, Shallow Puncture and More Twirling method was adopted for the acupoints of Sizhukong (SJ 23), Toulinqi (GB 15) Shuaigu (GB 8), Xuanlu (GB 5), Fengchi (GB 20), Waiguan (SJ 5), Zulinqi (GB 41). Patients were given acupuncture 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Then, the total VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores, composite score of migraine, serum level of 5-HT and β -EP, and the clinical efficacy differences were observed before and after treatment and the side-effects were recorded among the two groups. RESULTS: The total VAS scores and composite score of migraine were significantly reduced among both groups after the treatment (P < 0.05), and the serum level of 5-HT and β -EP was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Compared with control group, the acupuncture group reported lower results in VAS score and migraine composite score (P < 0.05), and higher results in serum 5-HT and β -EP level (P < 0.05). The acupuncture group with shallow puncture and more twirling method showed a total effective rate of 86.5%, which is higher than the control group (78.4%). The difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shallow Puncture and More Twirling method was superior to flunarizine hydrochloride in the treatment of clinical symptoms of migraine. Acupuncture also increases the serum level of 5-HT and β -EP in migraine.
Keywords: Shallow Puncture and More Twirling, acupuncture, migraine, clinical effect, randomized controlled trial
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Implant-restored patients with periodontitis have a higher risk of developing peri-implantitis, and helping them develop oral cleaning habits is significant. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing based on the transtheoretical model on the modification of oral cleaning behaviors of implant-restored patients with periodontitis. METHODS: Patients with periodontitis (n = 70) who would receive dental implant treatment were included. And they were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (n = 35) and control (n = 35).…Control patients received routine oral hygiene education, and those in the experimental group received motivational interviewing based on the transtheoretical model. Oral cleaning behavior was compared between the two groups before and after intervention. In addition, periodontal health status was compared on the day of implant restoration and three months later. RESULTS: Compared to the control, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better oral hygiene behavior after intervention (P < 0.05). Three months after implant restoration, significantly better results were obtained by the experimental group in terms of mPLI and mSBI (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Motivational interviewing based on the transtheoretical model can effectively improve the oral cleaning behavior and periodontal health of implant-restored patients with periodontitis.
Keywords: Periodontitis, implant, oral cleaning behavior, motivational interviewing based on the transtheoretical model
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The wrist pulse wave under the optimal pulse pressure plays an important role in detecting human body’s physiological and pathological information. Wavelet threshold filtering is a common method for pulse wave de-noising. However, traditional filtering methods cannot smoothen the whole pulse wave well and highlight the details. OBJECTIVE: In view of this, an attempt is made in this paper to propose the pulse wave denoising algorithm for pulse wave under optimal pulse pressure according to the translation invariant wavelet transform (TIWT) and the new threshold function. METHODS: Firstly, by using hyperbolic tangent…curve and combining the advantages of soft threshold function and hard threshold function, the new threshold function is derived. Secondly, based on the TIWT, pseudo-Gibbs phenomenon gets suppressed. RESULTS: The experiments show that in comparison to the traditional wavelet filtering algorithm, the novel algorithm can better maintain the pulse wave geometric characteristics and has a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). CONCLUSION: The TIWT with improved new threshold compensates the shortcomings of the traditional wavelet threshold denoising methods in a better way. It lays a foundation for extracting time-domain characteristics of pulse wave.
Keywords: Pulse wave, denoising method, a new threshold function, translation invariant wavelet transform
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Heilongjiang Province is a frontier province with distinctive characteristics, fertile land and rich products. OBJECTIVE: This study provides a new method for qualitatively studying flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine and a new auxiliary means for identifying flavonoid isomers. METHODS: The flavonoids in Polygala fallax Hemsl were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photo-diode array (PDA)-quadrupole-electro- static field orbitrap mass spectrometry tandem by UV Spectrum, primary and secondary high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS 1 /MS 2 ) cleavage of fragments combined with databases, mass spectrometry cleavage patterns and literature.…RESULTS: The established QSRR model was used to verify the flavonoids identified from the Polygala fallax Hemsl. CONCLUSION: The structure of multiple Polygala fallax Hemsl has been identified using various spectral methods. The tumor cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated. This paper is of great significance for further elucidating the pharmacodynamic substance basis and further developing and utilizing Polygala fallax Hemsl.
Keywords: Polygala fallax Hemsl, extraction of medicinal herbs, identification, tumor cells, evaluation of toxic activity