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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) augmentation on the microcirculation in cardiogenic-shock patients with peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. We investigated the effect of increasing MAP on the microcirculation in cardiogenic-shock patients with ECMO support. METHODS: A single-center prospective observational study under taken in ICU patients undergoing ECMO support for post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock was carried out. Patients with MAP <60 mmHg treated with ECMO support were the study cohort. Inotropic and vasopressor agents (dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine or epinephrine) were administered to maintain the MAP at 60–90 mmHg. Hemodynamic and…microcirculatory data were obtained at a baseline MAP of <60 mmHg and 1 h after target MAP was reached. As parameters of microcirculation, we measured thenar eminence tissue oxygenation (StO2 ) and its change during the vessel obstruction test and cerebral tissue oxygenation (rSO2 ) with near-infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were enrolled in the study. MAP of all patients increased and reached predefined therapeutic targets (52 [50–54.5] vs.74 [70–78.5] mmHg; p < 0.001). To obtain these targets, doses of inotropic agents were increased (inotrope score increased from 14 [15.5–28] μg/kg/min; p < 0.001). No obvious changes were observed in thenarmuscleStO2 and cerebral rSO2 . Thenar muscle StO2 desaturation slope and resaturation slopes during the vessel obstruction test were also unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing MAP from <60 mmHg to 60–90 mmHg did not affect microcirculation variables in cardiogenic-shock patients with ECMO support.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flap hypoperfusion or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may occur during preparation-transposition procedures and by postoperative thrombotic complications. Behind the microcirculatory disturbances micro-rheological alterations are also supposed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the groin flap I/R with following-up micro-rheological parameters. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were subjected to Control or I/R groups. Groin flaps were prepared bilaterally, pedicled on the superficial epigastric vessels. In Control group the flaps were re-sutured after one hour, while in I/R group microvascular clips were applied on the pedicles for 60 minutes, then the flaps were repositioned. Besides daily wound control, before the operation…and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th postoperative days blood samples were collected for testing red blood cell (RBC) deformability (rotational ektacytometry) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometry). RESULTS: RBC deformability significantly worsened by the 3rd–7th postoperative day in I/R group. RBC aggregation enhanced significantly by the 1st day, in I/R group it remained elevated on the 3rd day as well. In a complicated case with unilateral flap necrosis, RBC deformability and aggregation worsening was outlined from its group (base, 1st, 3rd day). CONCLUSION: Wound healing affected micro-rheological parameters in the early postoperative period. Flap I/R exacerbated the alterations. The parameters markedly worsened in case of flap necrosis.
Abstract: The focus of this paper is the determination of endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the establishment of a relationship between the traditional biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and the vascular tone regulation indices obtained from indirect cold tests in MetS patients. Our investigation was conducted on 30 patients aged 45.5±9 years. The control group comprised 14 healthy subjects aged 48.2±2.4 years. The mechanism of vascular tone regulation was investigated using the wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations (WAST). The degrees of microvascular vasoconstriction and vasodilatation were determined during contralateral cold tests in the endothelial (0.02–0.0095 Hz), neurogenic (0.05–0.02 Hz)…and myogenic (0.05–0.14 Hz) frequency ranges. In MetS patients, vasoconstriction indices were higher and vasodilatation indices were lower than in the subjects of the control group, which is indicative of disorders in the mechanisms of microvascular tone regulation. These indices correlate with the metabolic parameters and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) levels. The correlation of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation indices with the main factors of the metabolic syndrome testifies that the biological and functional aspects of the endothelial dysfunction are closely related.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, wavelet analysis of skin temperature oscillations, metabolic syndrome
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal perfusion (EP) is moving into focus of research in reconstructive and transplantation medicine for the preservation of amputates and free tissue transplants. The idea behind EP is the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage between separation from blood circulation and reanastomosis of the transplant. Most experimental approaches are based on a complex system that moves the perfusate in a circular course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate if a simple perfusion by an infusion bag filled with an electrolyte solution can provide acceptable results in terms of flow stability, oxygen supply and…viability conservation for EP of a muscle transplant. The results are compared to muscles perfused with a pump system as well as muscles stored under ischemic conditions with a one-time intravasal flushing with Jonosteril. RESULTS: With this simple method a sufficient oxygen supply could be achieved and functionality could be maintained between 3.35 times and 4.60 times longer compared to the control group. Annexin V positive nuclei, indicating apoptosis, increased by 9.7% in the perfused group compared to 24.4% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by decreasing the complexity of the system, EP by one-way infusion can become more feasible in clinical situations.
Abstract: The endothelialisation of synthetic surfaces applied as cardiovascular implant materials is an important issue to ensure the anti-thrombotic quality of a biomaterial. However, the rapid and constant development of a functionally-confluent endothelial cell monolayer is challenging. In order to investigate the compatibility of potential implant materials with endothelial cells several in vitro studies are performed. Here, glass and tissue culture plates (TCP) are often used as reference materials for in vitro pre-testing. However, a direct comparison of both substrates is lacking. Therefore, a comparison of study results is difficult, since results are often related to various reference…materials. In this study, the endothelialisation of glass and TCP was investigated in terms of adherence, morphology, integrity, viability and function using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). On both substrates an almost functionally confluent HUVEC monolayer was developed after nine days of cell seeding with clearly visible cell rims, decreased stress fiber formation and a pronounced marginal filament band. The viability of HUVEC was comparable for both substrates nine days after cell seeding with only a few dead cells. According to that, the cell membrane integrity as well as the metabolic activity showed no differences between TCP and glass. However, a significant difference was observed for the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. The concentration of both cytokines, which are associated with migratory activity, was increased in the supernatant of HUVEC seeded on TCP. This result matches well with the slighty increased number of adherent HUVEC on TCP. In conclusion these findings indicate that both reference materials are almost comparable and can be used equivalently as control materials in in vitro endothelialisation studies.
Abstract: Purpose: To assess the elastographic features of triple-negative breast cancers and evaluate the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) for the characterization of triple-negative breast cancers. Materials and methods: This study analyzed data from 234 women with breast cancer. Patients were categorized into three groups; 1) triple-negative breast cancers (n = 48); 2) ER-positive tumors (n = 128) and 3) HER2-positive tumors (n = 58). Mean tumor stiffness was evaluated by virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) and quantified as both qualitative scores (1–5) and shear wave velocity (SWV) (m/s). The relationship between…mean SWV and tumor parameters, including tumor size, tumor type, histologic grade and lymph node status, were investigated using multiple linear regression. Results: Triple-negative tumor were more likely to have a large invasive size (p = 0.002), high histological grade (p < 0.001), lymph node involvement (p = 0.022) and strong ki-67 expression (p < 0.001). The highest mean SWV value were recorded in triple-negative tumors (7.36 m/s±1.83), followed by HER2+ tumors (6.65 m/s±2.26) and ER+ tumors (6.60 m/s±2.35) (p = 0.122). Triple-negative tumors were also associated with increased stiffness than ER+ tumors and HER2+ tumors (p = 0.016), as measured by qualitative VTI scores. Tumor size was independently associated with mean SWV value on adjusted regression (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with high stiffness scores and SWV in ARFI. The latter may be considered a useful complementary tool in evaluation of triple-negative breast cancer.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of added shear wave elastography (SWE) in breast screening for women with results inconsistent between mammography and conventional ultrasounds (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 282 pathologically proven breast lesions. The cancer probability from screening by mammography and conventional US were scored using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Elastography was used to re-evaluate inconsistent conventional US and mammography results. The diagnostic performance of conventional US, mammography, and Combined conventional clinical imaging and SWE was compared. The clinicopathological features of all breast cancer patients with inconsistent (and consistent) conventional US…and mammography findings were compared. RESULT: Finally, 147 lesions were confirmed benign and 135 were malignant. The AUC of Combined conventional clinical imaging plus elastography imaging (0.870) was significantly higher than mammography (0.735, p < 0.001) or conventional US (0.717, p < 0.001) alone. Among the 135 breast cancers, 79 of the conventional US and mammography findings were consistent and 56 were inconsistent. Younger age(<50y) (p = 0.035), non-invasive (p = 0.037), smaller size (p = 0.002) and negative lymph node status (p = 0.026) were significantly associated with inconsistent findings. CONCLUSION: The added SWE in breast screening when inconsistent results from mammography and conventional US occurred is necessary and effective.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery commonly develop systemic inflammation associated with tissue edema, which impairs outcome. One main pathomechanism leading to the edema is the deterioration of the endothelial glycocalyx, a key component of the vascular barrier. In animal models hydrocortisone has proved to be protective for the glycocalyx. OBJECTIVE: This trial evaluates the effect of hydrocortisone on glycocalyx integrity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized interventional pilot trial, 30 patients received either hydrocortisone (100 mg over 10 min) or placebo (saline control) before surgery. Plasma concentrations of glycocalyx constituents (syndecan-1,…heparan sulfate) and various clinical parameters (respiratory and renal function, inflammatory markers, use of vasopressors, length of stay at the intensive care unit) were measured. Primary endpoint was a significant difference of glycocalyx constituents in plasma. Comparisons were made with Friedman’s and Wilcoxon tests (paired data), or the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (unpaired data). Holm-Bonferroni method was used for post-hoc corrections. RESULTS: Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 increased significantly during and after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in both groups. Whereas the maximum increase of heparan sulfate was 12.3-fold in the control vs. 3.8-fold in the pretreated group (p < 0.05), syndecan-1 values showed no significant difference between the groups (maximal increase 3-fold). The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were also higher in the control than in the hydrocortisone group, but there was no difference in patient mortality (zero), or in any clinical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with hydrocortisone ameliorated shedding of heparan sulfate, a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, but had no relevant influence on various clinical parameters or patient mortality. The relatively small number of patients in this pilot study probably precluded detection of positive outcome differences.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies report that higher plasma viscosity improves microcirculatory flow after haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, but no clinical study has tested this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between plasma viscosity and sublingual microcirculatory flow in patients during resuscitation for traumatic haemorrhagic shock (THS). METHODS: Sublingual video-microscopy was performed for 20 trauma patients with THS as soon as feasible in hospital, and then at 24 h and 48 h. Values were obtained for total vessel density, perfused vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels, microcirculatory flow index (MFI), microcirculatory heterogeneity index (MHI), and Point of Care Microcirculation (POEM)…scores. Plasma viscosity was measured using a Wells-Brookfield cone and plate micro-viscometer. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between microcirculatory parameters and plasma viscosity, adjusting for covariates (systolic blood pressure, heart rate, haematocrit, rate and volume of fluids, and rate of noradrenaline). RESULTS: Higher plasma viscosity was not associated with improved microcirculatory parameters. Instead, there were weakly significant associations between higher plasma viscosity and lower (poorer) MFI (p = 0.040), higher (worse) MHI (p = 0.033), and lower (worse) POEM scores (p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The current study did not confirm the hypothesis that higher plasma viscosity improves microcirculatory flow dynamics in patients with THS. Further clinical investigations are warranted to determine whether viscosity is a physical parameter of importance during resuscitation of these patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials are promising in biomedical research owing to their large surface area, graphene-like structure, and chemical and thermal properties. However, the toxicological effects of BN on erythrocytes and blood coagulation remain uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study were to synthesize glycol chitosan (GC)- and hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated BNs, and to investigate the effects of these BNs on human cancer cells, erythrocytes, and whole blood. METHODS: We prepared hemocompatible forms of BN coated with GC and HA, and evaluated them using cell uptake/viability tests, hemolysis analysis and FE-SEM, as well as through…hemorheological evaluation methods such as RBC deformability and aggregation, and blood coagulation. RESULTS: GC/BN and HA/BN were both ∼200 nm, were successfully taken into cells, and emitted blue fluorescence. Both BNs were less toxic than bare BN, even at higher concentrations. The aggregation index of human red blood cells (RBCs) after 2 h incubation with BN, GC/BN, and HA/BN was greatly influenced, whereas RBC deformability did not dramatically change. CONCLUSIONS: We found that GC/BN affected the intrinsic coagulation pathway, whereas both GC/BN and HA/BN affected the extrinsic pathway. Therefore, HA/BN is less detrimental to RBCs and blood coagulation dynamics than bare BN and GC/BN.