Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal perfusion (EP) is moving into focus of research in reconstructive and transplantation medicine for the preservation of amputates and free tissue transplants. The idea behind EP is the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage between separation from blood circulation and reanastomosis of the transplant. Most experimental approaches are based on a complex system that moves the perfusate in a circular course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate if a simple perfusion by an infusion bag filled with an electrolyte solution can provide acceptable results in terms of flow stability, oxygen supply and…viability conservation for EP of a muscle transplant. The results are compared to muscles perfused with a pump system as well as muscles stored under ischemic conditions with a one-time intravasal flushing with Jonosteril. RESULTS: With this simple method a sufficient oxygen supply could be achieved and functionality could be maintained between 3.35 times and 4.60 times longer compared to the control group. Annexin V positive nuclei, indicating apoptosis, increased by 9.7% in the perfused group compared to 24.4% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by decreasing the complexity of the system, EP by one-way infusion can become more feasible in clinical situations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flap hypoperfusion or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may occur during preparation-transposition procedures and by postoperative thrombotic complications. Behind the microcirculatory disturbances micro-rheological alterations are also supposed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the groin flap I/R with following-up micro-rheological parameters. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were subjected to Control or I/R groups. Groin flaps were prepared bilaterally, pedicled on the superficial epigastric vessels. In Control group the flaps were re-sutured after one hour, while in I/R group microvascular clips were applied on the pedicles for 60 minutes, then the flaps were repositioned. Besides daily wound control, before the operation…and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th postoperative days blood samples were collected for testing red blood cell (RBC) deformability (rotational ektacytometry) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometry). RESULTS: RBC deformability significantly worsened by the 3rd–7th postoperative day in I/R group. RBC aggregation enhanced significantly by the 1st day, in I/R group it remained elevated on the 3rd day as well. In a complicated case with unilateral flap necrosis, RBC deformability and aggregation worsening was outlined from its group (base, 1st, 3rd day). CONCLUSION: Wound healing affected micro-rheological parameters in the early postoperative period. Flap I/R exacerbated the alterations. The parameters markedly worsened in case of flap necrosis.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Adipose derived Stem Cells (ASCs) have been proven to play a key role in tissue regeneration. However, exposure to large amounts of cigarette smoke can drastically diminish their function. Erythropoetin (EPO), can modulate cellular response to injury. Therefore, we investigated the ability of EPO to restore the regenerative function and differentiation capacity of ASCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human ASCs were isolated from abdominoplasty samples using standard isolation procedures. Cell identity was established by means of Fluorescence Activated Cell Scanning. Subsequently, isolated ASCs were cultivated with cigarette smoke extract both with and without EPO. Parameters investigated included -…cellular metabolic activity, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity, and in vitro wound closure capacity. For further enhancing wound closure, EPO was combined with Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) or Stromal Derived Factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 a). RESULTS: Cigarette smoke reduces adipogenic differentiation, the osteogenic differentiation capacity as well as the in vitro wound healing ability of human derived ASCs. EPO did not change metabolic activity of ASCs significantly. The addition of EPO could partially restore their function. The combination of EPO with GM-CSF or SDF-1did not result in a synergistic effect regarding wound healing ability. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cigarette smoke significantly reduced the regenerative potential of ASCs. Treatment of ASCs exposed to cigarette smoke with EPO has the potential to partially restore their function.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: IL-17 is considered to be a cancer-promoting gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we explored the effect of IL-17 in predicting the therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with apartinib in patients with HCC in this study. METHODS: Established of IL-17 knockdown SK-Hep1 cells for studying the effects of IL-17 expression on the invasion and migration of human HCC cells in vitro by transwell assay and tumor angiogenesis in nude mouse. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of IL-17, E-cadherin, Vimentin and CD34 protein in 175 cases of human HCC tumor tissues. Kaplan-Meier…was used to analyze the prognostic significance of TACE combined with apatinib treatment in HCC patients. RESULTS: n SK-Hep1 cells, IL-17 knockdown could increase E-cadherin protein expression, reduce vimentin protein expression, inhibit cell invasion and migration in vitro , and inhibit angiogenesis of tumor and decrease plasma VEGF level in nude mouse. In tumor tissues of HCC patients, IL-17 protein expression was negatively correlated with E-cadherin protein expression (r = –0.622, P < 0.001), positively correlated with Vimentin protein expression (r = 0.540, P < 0.001), and was positively correlated with MVD of HCC tumor tissues (r = 0.564, P < 0.001). Compared with adjuvant TACE alone, patients with low-expression of IL-17 treated combined with apatinib have a higher 5-year overall survival. However, additional apatinib treatment did not significantly improve 5-year overall survival in HCC patients with high IL-17 expression. CONCLUSION: IL-17 had a pivotal role in the invasion and angiogenesis of HCC and contribute to the selection of patients who may benefit from adjuvant TACE combined with apatinib.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurs in various clinical events, and its incidence and mortality have been increasing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the monitoring of dexamethasone in the improvement of renal I/R injury in rats. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, I/R, and I/R surgery plus dexamethasone treatment (Dexa) groups. In the I/R group 45-minute renal ischemia with 24 h reperfusion period was monitored. Time-intensity curve (TIC)-derived parameters, which included peak value, time to peak (TP), area under the curve (AUC), and mean transit…time (MTT) were compared to the blood creatinine, urea, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 levels. RESULTS: The I/R group showed an increased peak value, prolonged TP and MTT, and greater AUC (P < 0.05). The Dexa group showed shorter TP and MTT, and smaller AUC (P < 0.05). Results show that the associations between (i) TP, AUC, and MTT and (ii) creatinine, urea, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 levels were significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone can alleviate renal I/R injury in rats, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 and caspase-1. CEUS can quantitatively measure this change, in which the changes in TP, AUC and MMT values have considerable reference values.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myocardial inflammation mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an active role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Studies show that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is involved in ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) cardioprotection. This study investigates the roles of TLR4 and HSP90 in IPostC. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 30 min ischemia, then 2 h reperfusion. IPostC was applied by three cycles of 30 s reperfusion, then 30 s reocclusion at reperfusion onset. Sixty rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, I/R, IPostC, and geldanamycin (GA, HSP90 inhibitor, 1 mg/kg) plus IPostC (IPostC + GA). RESULTS: IPostC significantly reduced I/R-induced infarct size…(40.2±2.1% versus 28.4±2.4%; P < 0.05); the release of cardiac Troponin T, creatine kinase-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase (191.5±3.1 versus 140.6±3.3 pg/ml, 3394.6±132.7 versus 2880.7±125.5 pg/ml, 2686.2±98.6 versus 1848.8±90.1 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.05); and cardiomyocyte apoptosis (40.3±2.2% versus 27.0±1.6%; P < 0.05). Further, local and circulating IL-1β , IL-6, TNF-α , and ICAM-1 levels decreased; TLR4 expression and nuclear factor-KB (NF-κ B) signaling decreased; and cardiac HSP90 expression increased. Blocking HSP90 function with GA inhibited IPostC protection and anti-inflammation, suggesting that IPostC has a HSP90-dependent anti-inflammatory effect. CONCLUSION: HSP90 may play a role in IPostC-mediated cardioprotection by inhibiting TLR4 activation, local and systemic inflammation, and NF-kB signaling.
Abstract: There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.
Abstract: The burden of pandemic COVID-19 is growing worldwide, as the continuous increases of contagion. Only 10–15% of the entire infected population has the necessity of intensive care unit (ICU) treatments. But, this relatively low rate of patients has absorbed almost the whole availability of ICU during few days, becoming at least in Italy, an emergency for the national health system. In COVID-19 ICU patients massive aggression of lung with severe pulmonary failure, as well as kidney and liver injuries, heart, brain, bowel and spleen damages with lymph nodes necrosis and even cutaneous manifestations have been observed. Moreover, increased levels of…cytokines so-called “cytokines storm (CS), and overt intravascular disseminated coagulation have been also reported. The hypercoagulation and CS would speculate about a microvascular dysfunction. Unfortunately, no specific observations have been performed on microcirculatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Hence the presumed pathophysiological pathways and models about a microvascular involvement can be gathered by sepsis models studies. But despite this lack of evidence, the COVID-19 has emphasized the compelling need for microcirculation monitoring at the bedside in ICU patients.