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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flap hypoperfusion or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may occur during preparation-transposition procedures and by postoperative thrombotic complications. Behind the microcirculatory disturbances micro-rheological alterations are also supposed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the groin flap I/R with following-up micro-rheological parameters. METHODS: Anesthetized rats were subjected to Control or I/R groups. Groin flaps were prepared bilaterally, pedicled on the superficial epigastric vessels. In Control group the flaps were re-sutured after one hour, while in I/R group microvascular clips were applied on the pedicles for 60 minutes, then the flaps were repositioned. Besides daily wound control, before the operation…and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th postoperative days blood samples were collected for testing red blood cell (RBC) deformability (rotational ektacytometry) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometry). RESULTS: RBC deformability significantly worsened by the 3rd–7th postoperative day in I/R group. RBC aggregation enhanced significantly by the 1st day, in I/R group it remained elevated on the 3rd day as well. In a complicated case with unilateral flap necrosis, RBC deformability and aggregation worsening was outlined from its group (base, 1st, 3rd day). CONCLUSION: Wound healing affected micro-rheological parameters in the early postoperative period. Flap I/R exacerbated the alterations. The parameters markedly worsened in case of flap necrosis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal perfusion (EP) is moving into focus of research in reconstructive and transplantation medicine for the preservation of amputates and free tissue transplants. The idea behind EP is the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage between separation from blood circulation and reanastomosis of the transplant. Most experimental approaches are based on a complex system that moves the perfusate in a circular course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate if a simple perfusion by an infusion bag filled with an electrolyte solution can provide acceptable results in terms of flow stability, oxygen supply and…viability conservation for EP of a muscle transplant. The results are compared to muscles perfused with a pump system as well as muscles stored under ischemic conditions with a one-time intravasal flushing with Jonosteril. RESULTS: With this simple method a sufficient oxygen supply could be achieved and functionality could be maintained between 3.35 times and 4.60 times longer compared to the control group. Annexin V positive nuclei, indicating apoptosis, increased by 9.7% in the perfused group compared to 24.4% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, by decreasing the complexity of the system, EP by one-way infusion can become more feasible in clinical situations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carotid stenting stimulates intimal proliferation through platelet and stem cell activation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the administration before or after carotid stenting of clopidogrel loading dose may play a role on circulating endothelial progenitor cells, stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α ) and neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS: We recruited 13 patients (aged 74.52±7.23) with indication of carotid revascularization and in therapy with salicylic acid and statin. We blindly randomized them in two groups: pre-carotid angioplasty with stent (Pre-CAS group) receiving 300 mg of clopidogrel before stenting, and post-carotid angioplasty with stent (Post-CAS…group) receiving 300 mg after stenting. At the admission, we valued endothelial progenitor cells, SDF-1α and prospectively we repeated blood samples and measured intima-media thickness to estimate neointimal hyperplasia on the stent at 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: In the days following the CAS, we found a lower, statistically not significant, trend of endothelial progenitor cells in Pre-CAS group. The SDF-1α concentration tended to be lower at baseline in the pre-CAS group than in the post-CAS group and it did not show an increase in the observed time. On the contrary, in the Post-CAS group we observed a peak at six hours with a significant reduction (p < 0.001) at one day after stenting. The intima-media thickness was significantly lower in the Pre-CAS group than the Post-CAS group both at six months and 12 months after stenting. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-stenting clopidogrel loading dose leaded to short-time modification of endothelial progenitor cells and platelets and to long-term a minor neointimal hyperplasia.
Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). One hundred and eighty-six patients with PTC confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) were preoperatively performed CEUS.A multivariate analysis was performed to predict CLNM by 15 independent variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. There were totally 37 patients with CLNM confirmed by pathology. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that intensity at peak time, capsule contact and size on CEUS were the three strongest…independent predictors for CLNM. ROC analyses of these characteristics showed the areas under the curve (Az), sensitivity, and specificity were 0.650, 48.6 %, 79.8 %; 0.586, 67.6%, 49.7%; and 0.612, 56.8%, 64.4% for intensity at peak time, capsule contact, and size, respectively. The CEUS patterns of PTC are relative to not only the size of PTC but also the possibility of CLNM after thyroidectomy. CEUS seem to be a tool to predict CLNM in PTC patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemorheologic alterations have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We measured various hemorheologic parameters and assessed their possible role as a diagnostic tool for diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: 248 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 222 subjects with prediabetes were included in this study. Hemorheologic parameters, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), elongation index at 3 Pa (EI) were measured using microfluidic hemorheometer. Various metabolic parameters were measured from fasting blood samples. The subjects were stratified into three groups according to classification of DN by urinary albumin to creatinine…ratio (ACR) and four groups by estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), than analyzed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in metabolic and hemorheologic parameters according to progression of DN. Among them, (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI differed in all three groups of urinary ACR. In multiple regression analysis, (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI was an independent predictor of urine ACR after adjusted with confounding factors (ß = 0.010, p < 0.001). (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI also showed significant difference no or minimal CKD stage, moderate CKD and severe CKD classified by GFR. This parameter showed area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.762, and moderate sensitivity and specificity to predict prevalence of microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: (Fibrinogen×ESR)/ EI is a sensitive parameter for screening diabetic nephropathy.
Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, RBC deformability, hemorheology, elongation index
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease, including increased morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect, in rats, of intratracheal instillation of particulate air pollution on biomarkers of leucocyte activation and vascular endothelial damage. METHODS: Air pollution particles (PM10) were instilled into rats, and blood samples were taken three days and six weeks post instillation. Plasma neutrophil elastase and VonWillebrand factor were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Plasma neutrophil elastase increased from 175±44 ng/ml at baseline to 288±26 ng/ml 3 days post instillation (p… = 0.038). vWF increased from 0.160±0.015 IU/ml at baseline to 0.224±0.015 IU/ml at 3 days post and 0.208±0.01 IU/ml at 6 weeks post (p = 0.006, ANOVA). sICAM-1 increased from 17.75±0.70 ng/ml at baseline to 19.03±0.33 ng/ml at 3 days post and 21.72±1.16 ng/ml at 6 weeks post (p = 0.009, ANOVA). CONCLUSION: Instillation caused prolonged systemic inflammation, activation of blood leucocytes and damage to the vascular endothelium.
Keywords: Particles, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, endothelial damage and leucocyte
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is fragile and sensitive to damage such as exposure to hypernatremia. Our aim was to describe the influence of hypernatremia on the EG in sublingual and brain microcirculation in rabbits. METHODS: Hypernatremia was induced by intravenous administration of 10% NaCl solution. The sublingual and brain microcirculation were evaluated by the Side-stream Dark Field imaging before (T1) and 20 minutes after infusion of 10% saline (T2). Damage to the EG was quantified by automated analysis of Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) indicating the amount of penetration of red blood cells into the EG.…Syndecan-1 levels were also measured. RESULTS: Hypernatremia was reached in all 20 animals, the PBR values of the sublingual area raised from 1,98 (0,3) to 2,17 (0,18) μ m (p = 0,05). The levels of syndecan-1 (1,23 (0,36); 1,31 (0,33) ng/l, p = 0,3) did not mirror PBR changes. CONCLUSIONS: Hypernatremia increased the PBR within the sublingual microcirculation in our animal model, probably due to compression of the EG related to temporary intravascular hypervolemia and changes of the EG charge in RBC instead of direct damaging effect on EG, which has been excluded by rather unchanged levels of syndecan-1.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a leading cause of death in human malignancies. The aim of this study is to integrate the CAM Assay as a reliable and good working in vivo model for the evaluation of OSCC tumor samples and its growth into the clinical work flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fresh human Tumor samples (OSCCs) 1×1 cm in size were cut into 350–450μ m thick slices by a Vibratome and put on the prepared CAM model. After growth of the tumor tissue on the CAM, we started with topical induction of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα…) and growth factors (TGFβ ). After further growth of the tumor on the assay, we explanted the tumor tissue and first performed microscopic and then immunohistochemical examinations. E-cadherin and vimentin were used as Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -makers and the histologic preparations were evaluated histomorphometrically. The results were correlated with clinical parameters of the patients. RESULTS: Under TNFα , the small tumors (T1 / T2) show higher E-cadherin expression than larger tumors (T3 / T4). The vimentin expression under TNFα behaved in the opposite direction, at T1 / T2 the expression decreased in T3 / T4 increased. Furthermore, an increased E-cadherin expression in N0 and diminished E-cadherin expression in N1 / N2b patients could be detected depending on the N-stage of the patients. Vimentin, on the other hand, was reduced in the N0 group and expressed more frequently in the N1 / N2b group. TGFβ induction also led to increased expression of vimentin in the T3 / T4 tumors and N1 / N2b stages. CONCLUSION: By integrating a CAM assay into the clinical workflow, tumors with preserved tumor architecture can be cultured and subjected to histological and molecular biology studies. Effects on biological behavior are recognizable and demonstrable in this model. The key markers E-cadherin and vimentin alone are not sufficient to represent the complexity of the EMT in this model. Further molecular biology and signaling pathway analyzes are necessary.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human and equine patients are known to frequently develop vascular complications, particularly thrombosis both in veins and arteries as well as in the microvasculature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the angiogenic response of human and equine endothelial cells to lesions in an in vitro scratch assay. METHODS: Endothelial cells from human umbilical vein (HUVEC), abdominal aorta (HAAEC) and dermal microvasculature (HDMEC) as well as equine carotid artery (EACEC) and jugular vein (EVJEC) were cultured and an elongated defect was created (scratch or “wound”). Cultures were monitored over…a period of 90 hours in a life cell imaging microscope. RESULTS: In the human endothelial cell cultures, there was a uniform and continuous migration of the cells from the scratch fringe into the denuded area, which was closed after 17 (HUVEC), 15 (HAAEC) and 26 (HDMEC) hours. In the equine endothelial cell cultures, a complete closure of the induced defect occurred after 17 (EVJEC) and 35 (EACEC) hours. CONCLUSIONS: In the equine arterial cells, the delay in closure of the denuded area seems to be the results of a disoriented and uncoordinated migration of endothelial tip cells resulting in slow re-endothelialization.