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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Volleyball players are exposed to the possibility of several well recognized injuries, among which microvascular abnormalities are the less described and studied, although they could diminish their ability and performance. Capillaroscopy is a simple, non-invasive method to diagnose vascular abnormalities in athletes suffering for the consequences of repeated application of pressure by local trauma on the fingertips. The detected capillaroscopic picture will be the base for the follow-up and will indicate the possible need for further investigations aimed at excluding other occulted conditions. At our knowledge, this is the first report describing and documenting the related microvascular abnormalities in a…volleyball player. This case emphasizes the fact that volleyball players among other athletes, whose hands are exposed to repeated fingertips trauma may suffer from microcirculation damage, for which reason they should be able to access an effective health surveillance program able to detect the first signs and offer the most appropriate clinical support.
Keywords: Volleyball, athletes, sport, capillaroscopy, hand, injury, microcirculation, translational medicine
Abstract: Repeated injections of iodinated contrast media (CM) can lead to a deterioration of the renal blood flow, can redistribute blood from the renal cortex to other parts of the kidney and can cause small decreases of the blood flow in cortical capillaries, a significant reduction in blood flow in peritubular capillaries and a significant reduction in blood flow in the vasa recta. Therefore, a study in pigs was designed, to show whether the repeated injection of CM boli, alone, can cause a reduction of oxygenation in the cortico-medullar renal tissue – the region with the highest oxygen demand in the…kidney - of pigs. While the mean pO2 -value had only decreased by 0.3 mmHg from 29.9±4.3 mmHg to 29.6±4.3 mmHg (p = 0.8799) after the tenth Iodixanol bolus, it decreased by 5.9 mmHg from 34.0±4.3 mmHg to 28.1±4.3 mmHg after the tenth Iopromide bolus (p = 0.044). This revealed a remarkable difference in the influence of these CM on the oxygen partial pressure in the kidney. Repeated applications of CM had a significant influence on the renal oxygen partial pressure. In line with earlier studies showing a redistribution of blood from the cortex to other renal areas, this study revealed that Iodixanol – in contrast to Iopromide - induced no changes in the pO2 in the cortico-medullar region which confirms that Iodixanol did not hinder the flow of blood through the renal micro-vessels. These results are in favor of a hypothesis from Brezis that a microcirculatory disorder might be the basis for the development of CI-AKI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Evidence of a circadian rhythm in endothelium-dependent vasomotor function, with a nadir in Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) in the early morning hours, has been previously reported. These changes have been proposed to be one of the mechanisms explaining the circadian pattern in the incidence of cardiovascular events. We set out to investigate the circadian rhythm of FMD, low-flow mediated dilation (L-FMC) and sympathetic vascular tone. METHODS AND RESULTS: 10 young healthy male volunteers (mean age, 28.9±3.7 years) underwent measurements of radial artery endothelium-dependent FMD and L-FMC at 8AM, 2PM and 8PM on the same day. Sympathetic vascular tone…was assessed with laser Doppler and Fourier transform analysis. Compared with 2PM and 8PM, FMD decreased markedly in the early morning (2.9±3.4%; 6.2±2.9%; 6.0±4.0%; P = 0.007). In contrast, L-FMC was maximal at 8AM, decreased significantly at 2PM, and returned to higher values at 8PM (–5.1±1.3%; –2.7±2.0%; –4.6±2.2%; P = 0.030), such that the composite endpoint of endothelial function (sum of FMD+L-FMC) was not significantly different among timepoints. Vascular sympathetic tone was maximal early in the morning and lowest in the evening (P = 0.014) without a correlation with the changes in FMD or L-FMC. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial responsiveness (FMD) and basal tone (L-FMC) appear to follow different circadian rhythms, with an impaired responsiveness in the early morning and a nadir in baseline tone in the early afternoon.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mechanism of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) remain not fully understood yet. Thus, we performed a clinical trial to assess the neuronal influence on its signal induction. METHODS: RIC was conducted on 45 patients who were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and B underwent brachial plexus anesthesia while RIC was performed on the blocked (A) and non-blocked side (B), respectively. In group C, RIC was conducted before regional anesthesia, thus serving as control group. All measurements were taken contralateral to RIC. The relative increase of microcirculatory parameters compared to baseline was evaluated and compared between the groups.…RESULTS: Superficial blood flow (sBF) significantly increased in group A and C but values were higher among group C. Compared to group A, group C showed a significant increase of sBF during the initial 5 minutes of reperfusion (1.75; CI 1.139 – 2.361 vs . 0.97, CI 0.864 – 1.076, p < 0.05). Deep blood flow, tissue oxygen saturation and relative hemoglobin content were marginally influenced by RIC irrespectively of the presence of regional anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Despite regional anesthesia a significant RIC stimulus can be induced although its microcirculatory response is attenuated compared to control. Hence, RIC induction does not merely depend on neuronal signaling.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is a carbohydrate-rich vascular lining of the apical surface of endothelial cells. It has been proved to have an essential role in vascular homeostasis. Lipid emulsions as part of parenteral nutrition (PN) are widely used in patients in the setting of critical care and perioperative medicine. Due to their structure, lipids may potentially interact with EG. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lipid emulsion on EG. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of lipid emulsion on EG integrity in ICU patients using a videomicroscopic and biochemical methods. METHODS:…Patients in surgical ICU after major abdominal surgery or cardio surgery and in general ICU were assessed for eligibility for this pilot observational study in University Hospital. The study was performed during the first day of adding lipids as a part of their PN. The patients were given the SMOFlipid 20% for 6 hours in prescribed dose of approx. 1 g/kg of body weight. EG integrity was measured indirectly by automated sublingual videomicroscopy calculating a parameter PBR which describes the amount of lateral deviation of red blood cells from the central column and by levels of syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 in plasma as EG degradational products. Measurements were performed before lipid administration (T0) and 30 minutes after (T6) the infusion of lipid emulsion was completed. The statistical analysis was performed at the level of significance p < 0.05, data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and for PBR as median and interquartile range (IQR). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were studied, from them 9 included in final analysis. PBR (expressed in μ m) increased after the lipid infusion with no statistical significance (T0 = 2.10; 1.97–2.33 vs. 2.28; 2.11–2.45, p = 0.13). At T6 both syndecans showed statistically significant decrease in their particular levels. Syndecan–1 at T0 = 2580±1013 ng/l, resp. at T6 = 2365±1077 ng/l, p = 0.02; syndecan–4 at T0 = 134±29 ng/l, resp. at T6 = 123±43 ng/l, p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: In our study, we showed that six hours long SMOFlipid 20% infusion had no detrimental effect on the EG integrity as assessed by PBR value and by syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 plasmatic levels. Observed decrease of syndecans shortly after lipid infusion allows us to hypothesize even possibly protecting effect of lipids on EG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the benefits of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with high frequency transducers in characterization of focal gallbladder lesions (FGL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2017 to April 2019, 59 FGL detected by B mode ultrasound (BMUS) were examined, first with the low frequency convex transducer (1–5 MHz) and afterwards with high frequency transducer (7.5–12 MHz). High frequency dynamic CEUS were applied after bolus injection of 4.8 ml Sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles (SonoVue® , Milan). The BMUS and CEUS imaging features were recorded and compared. All lesions were confirmed by surgical resection and histopathologic results. RESULTS: The final…diagnoses of 59 FGL included gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n = 15), gallbladder polyps (n = 11), gallbladder adenomas (n = 18), focal adenomyomatosis (n = 9), and gallbladder Ascariasis debris (n = 6). The mean diameter of FGL was 24.5±11.4 mm, and mean depth to the abdominal wall was 21.2±7.3 mm. While applying CEUS with high frequency transducer, specific diagnostic features, including arterial phase irregular intralesional vascularity (10/15, 66.7%), late phase hypoenhancement (12/15, 80%), destruction of gallbladder wall (8/15, 53.3%), infiltration to the adjacent liver (6/15, 40.0%) were significantly higher in malignant FGL. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the correct characterization of malignant FGL were significantly improved by CEUS with high frequency transducer (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 88.5%, accuracy 100%). CONCLUSION: With its superior contrast resolution, CEUS performed with high frequency transducers is helpful to achieve better visualization of gallbladder fundus and make differential diagnosis of gallbladder lesions, which might greatly improve diagnostic confidence between malignant and benign FGL.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the atherosclerosis (AS), inflammatory factor level, cognitive disorder and vascular endothelial functions in patients with different grades of leukoaraiosis (LA), and to explore the correlations of different grades of LA with cognitive disorder. METHODS: A total of 180 patients with cerebral infarction admitted and treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital were selected, and they were graded according to the Tarvonen-shcolder standard, with 45 patients in each group. The atherosclerotic plaques of the patients were detected via a color Doppler ultrasound system and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their inflammatory factor levels were determined…using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cognitive function was scored based on the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured to evaluate vascular endothelial functions. RESULTS: According to the comparisons among four groups of the patients, the incidence rate of AS was gradually increased among patients with different grades of LA (p < 0.05). With the aggravation of LA, the levels of inflammatory factors in patients were obviously increased (p < 0.05). LA patients had evidently lowered MMSE scores and levels of SOD and NO, but notably raised inflammatory factors C-reactive protein (CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial function indices MDA and ET (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of LA is implicated with the increasing levels of inflammatory factors in the patients, aggregation of cognitive dysfunction and impairment vascular endothelial functions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Erythrocyte deformability is impaired in sickle cell disease (SCD). The regulation of cytoskeletal protein organization plays a key role in erythrocyte deformability. The activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP/Protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway was associated with increased deformability in healthy erythrocytes, however the role of this pathway in SCD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated mechanical responses of sickle red blood cells under physiological levels of shear stress and the possible link between their deformability and AC/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. METHODS: The shearing of sickle red blood cells at physiological level (5 Pa) and the measurement of…deformability were performed by a laser assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORRCA). RESULTS: Red blood cell deformability increased of 2.5–6.5% by blocking the activity of phosphodiesterase with Pentoxifylline (10μ M) (p < 0.05). The inhibition of AC with SQ22536 (100μ M) produced more significant rise in deformability (+4.8–12%, p < 0.01). No significant change was observed by the inhibition of PKA with H89 (10μ M). CONCLUSION: Pentoxifylline and SQ22536 increased the deformability of sickle red blood cells under fluid shear stress. Modulation of the AC/cAMP/PKA pathway could have the potential to be an effective therapeutic approach for SCD through shear-induced improvements of RBC deformability.
Keywords: Protein kinase a, adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase, red blood cell deformability, sickle cell disease
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of BRAFV600E mutation with ultrasonographic (US) features and clinicopathologic characteristics in Chinese patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed 116 consecutive Chinese patients with PTMC diagnosed by postoperative pathology. The incidence of the BRAFV600E mutation was calculated. The US features and clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative patients. RESULTS: The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 60.3% of patients (70 of 116). Multifocality (OR: 3.681, P = 0.031), non-parallel orientation (OR: 3.181, P = 0.041) and lymph node metastasis (OR: 4.615, P = 0.009) were…significantly associated with BRAFV600E mutation. Other US and clinicopathologic characteristics were not significantly related to the presence of BRAF mutation. CONCLUSION: Multifocality, non-parallel orientation and cervical lymph node metastasis are risk factors for BRAFV600E mutation in PTMC. These factors potentially guide treatment planning or prognosis evaluation.
Abstract: Although the inherited quantitative and qualitative disorders of fibrinogen are rare, in the course of time patients may develop complications including episodes of arterial and venous thrombosis. It can be useful to complete the laboratory assessment of these clinical conditions with the evaluation of the haemorheological profile. The data obtained from this study showed that congenital afibrinogenemia was characterized by a primary plasma hypoviscosity, whereas congenital dysfibrinogenemia by a primary plasma hyperviscosity. Both these haemorheological alterations may concur, with different mechanisms, to the pathogenesis of thrombotic vascular complications.