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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of thyroid nodule sizes on the diagnostic performance of Korean thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). METHODS: In total, 308 consecutive patients with 382 thyroid nodules underwent US-guided FNA or surgery were included in this retrospective study. The nodule size was classified into 3 categories: ≤10 mm (group A), 10–20 mm (group B), and ≥20 mm (group C). We compared the risk of malignancy in each subgroup, categorized according to the TIRADS and CEUS patterns. RESULTS: In group A, the differences in diagnostic value between TIRADS…and CEUS were significant (AUC: 0.804 vs 0.733, P = 0.028, sensitivity: 81.8% vs 72.7%, P = 0.013, specificity: 88.9% vs 79.4%, P = 0.011). In group B, the AUC (0.897), sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (91.9%) of CEUS were highest. In group C, the specificity of CEUS was significantly higher compared with TIRADS classification (90.8% vs 82.9%, P = 0.023), while the sensitivity and AUC showed no significant difference between the two models (84.2% vs 81.5%, P > 0.406, 0.848 vs 0.820, P = 0.545). CONCLUSIONS: Nodule size influences the diagnostic accuracy of the two methods. TIRADS have best value in nodules ≤10 mm, while CEUS perform best for differentiating lesions >10 mm, especially in lesions ≥20 mm.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dynamic three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) with quantitative analysis is updated in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of dynamic 3D-CEUS in evaluation of dynamic vascular patterns of focal liver lesions (FLL), and to analyze the correlation of time-intensity curve (TIC) parameters between dynamic 3D-CEUS and two-dimensional CEUS (2D-CEUS). METHODS: Dynamic 3D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS were both carried out in 106 FLL cases with SonoVue. Divided into arterial, portal and late phases, dynamic 3D-CEUS image quality of 106 FLLs were scored by 2 readers separately and graded according to the overall score. The 2D-CEUS and identical…3D-CEUS TIC parameters of the same FLL were compared and the correlation of these parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: A satisfactory correlation (0.953) and a good inter-observer agreement (0.700) of 2 readers were achieved by using five-point score scale to image quality in 3 phases of dynamic 3D-CEUS. The boundaries of FLLs were clearest in arterial phase on dynamic 3D-CEUS. The depth and vascularization of FLLs only had influence on its image quality in only arterial phase (P = 0.002 and 0.000 respectively). The comparison of quantification between dynamic 3D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS of 56 FLLs were also underwent. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TP), were both 0.96, and Pearson correlation coefficients of all 5 TIC parameters were no less than 0.90 between dynamic 3D-CEUS and 2D-CEUS. CONCLUSION: Dynamic 3D-CEUS is technically feasible and can be used for clinical evaluation of the perfusion of FLL avoiding adverse factors of sampling. Quantitative 3D-CEUS parameters are stable and reliable, and have good correlation with those of 2D-CEUS.
Abstract: Background: An observational cohort study was conducted to identify potential sublingual microcirculation parameters as a target for goal-directed fluid therapy. Methods: Patients that were scheduled for an open elective pancreatico-biliary surgery in Erasmus Medical Center were included. All patients underwent sublingual microcirculatory measurement at three time points: one day before surgery (T0), within the first 24 hours after surgery (T1) and on the fourth day after surgery (T2). The following parameters were obtained: microvascular flow index (MFI (AU)), Total vessels density (TVD (mm/mm2/)), Perfused vessels density (PVD (mm/mm2)), and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV (%)). Results:…Sixteen patients were included in the final analysis. The differences between the time points T1 and T0 in patients without clinical significant complication and in patients with these complications gave a significant difference for PVD small vessels (PVDs) (delta PVDs mean -0.1 vs -8.2, p=0.01) and PPV small vessels (PPVs) (delta PPVs median 7.0 % vs -15.5 %, p=0.01). Conclusion: The most significant microcirculatory parameter for a perioperative complicated course is the change of PVD and PPV. In the first 24 hours after surgery, if these parameters decrease there is a high chance of a complicated perioperative course.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging and Quantification (VTIQ), combined with the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules. METHODS: A total of 130 thyroid nodules in 128 patients were included. The diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasound (US), VTIQ, and the combination of these two techniques was calculated and compared according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for the ACR TI-RADS…were 98.6% (72/73) and 24.6% (14/57), respectively. There was a strong agreement with ACR TI-RADS categories of thyroid nodules (all ICCs > 0.60). With an optimal cutoff value of 2.46 m/s, the sensitivity and specificity of the minimal shear wave velocity (SWVmin ) were 87.7% (64/73) and 70.2% (40/57). By applying this value to downgrade or upgrade ACR TI-RADS, the specificity significantly increased from 24.6% (14/57) to 47.4% (27/57; P < 0.05) and the sensitivity remained at 98.6% (72/73). CONCLUSIONS: VTIQ combined with ACR TI-RADS could improve the specificity of the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules without a loss of sensitivity.
Keywords: Ultrasound, elastography, thyroid nodule, thyroid imaging reporting and data system, virtual touch tissue imaging and quantification
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical role of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in predicting BI-RADS 4 breast disease. METHODS: A total of 92 sites of BI-RADS 4 breast diseases were reassessed by routine ultrasound and CEUS. The main indicators of routine ultrasound, CEUS and the combination of the two modalities were picked up by binary logistic regression analysis, scoring 0 for benign and 1 for malignant characteristics with pathology as referential standard to generate corresponding score systems of them. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were applied to compare the diagnostic efficacy of the three score systems.…RESULTS: As pathological results showing, there were 43 malignant and 49 benign sites in total. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the margin, micro-calcification, and hyperechoic halo were main indicators for routine ultrasound score system. The scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS were main indicators for CEUS score system. The microcalcification, hyperechoic halo, the scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS were main indicators for the combination score system of the two modalities. The sensitivity, specificity and the area under ROC curve (AUC) of routine US, CEUS and the combination of the two modalities score systems were 74.4%, 91.8%, 0.885 and 88.4%, 87.8%, 0.901 and 86.0%, 95.9%, 0.937, respectively. CONCLUSION: In summary, CEUS is helpful for us to identify malignant disease and plays a supplementary role in predicting BI-RADS 4 breast disease in some extent. The scope expansion and pathological vessels in CEUS may be the most useful indicators.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the normal morphological features of the retinal periarteral capillary free zone (paCFZ) and the changes associated with severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A total of 148 normal subjects and 115 patients with severe NPDR were enrolled. Spectral-domain OCTA was used to acquire the image with a Cirrus prototype. Diameter and area of each paCFZ quadrant and adjacent large artery diameter was estimated. RESULTS: In healthy subjects, the maximum width of paCFZ in the temporal quadrant (169.38 ± 19.26 μ m) was smaller than the other three quadrants…(all P <0.001). The ratio of maximum paCFZ width to artery caliber was much larger in the nasal quadrants than the rest quadrants (Ps <0.05). In patients with severe NPDR, both maximum width and area of paCFZ were significant larger, and the retinal artery inner diameters significant smaller in each quadrant compared to normal subjects (Ps <0.05). The ratio of paCFZ maximum width to artery caliber maximum width was significant greater, and the ratio of paCFZ area to artery caliber was significantly higher in all quadrants compared to normal eyes (Ps <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: OCTA provides noninvasive and quantitative measurement of paCFZ dimensions. The maximum width and area of paCFZ quadrants and the ratios of these parameters to adjacent inner artery width and area are elevated in severe NPDR, suggesting that changes in paCFZ dimension can be used as clinical indices for diseases associated with changes in retinal microcirculation and oxygen pressure. PRÉCIS: Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed differences in retinal periarteral capillary free zone (paCFZ) morphometry between health retina and severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Morphometric indices of paCFZ may be useful for monitoring disease occurrence and progression.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Exercise electrocardiography (ECG) is frequently used as a diagnostic measure in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it has low sensitivity for the detection of CAD. Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been proposed as an alternative tool to accurately diagnose CAD. OBJECTIVE: To date, a direct comparison of MCG to ECG has not been performed. This study sought to compare them for predicting the presence of significantly obstructive CAD. METHODS: The patients with chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of CAD were enrolled in the analysis. All the patients underwent a clinical evaluation, exercise ECG,…a MCG exercise test, and coronary angiography (CA). CAD was defined as stenosis ≥70% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery on quantitative analysis of CA. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 202 consecutive patients who suggested CAD. The prevalence of CAD on CA was 39.1%. Sensitivity and accuracy for CAD diagnosis was higher for MCG compared with exercise ECG (sensitivities 68.4% and 40.5%, p <0.001, specificities 95.1% and 91.1%, p = 0.267, and accuracies 84.7% and 71.3%, p <0.001, respectively). There was no incremental diagnostic value of combined MCG and ECG to detect coronary artery disease (p = 0.357). CONCLUSIONS: For the patients with intermediate to high risk of CAD, MCG exercise test provides better diagnostic accuracy for the detection of relevant obstruction of the epicardial coronaries when directly compared to exercise ECG.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of dance movement therapy exercises (DMT) on the rheological properties of blood in elderly women. METHODS: The study encompassed group of women (mean aged: 67 years), who were subjected to three-month dance movement therapy programme (n = 20). Blood samples from all the women were examined for their haematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters both prior to the study and three months thereafter. RESULTS: DMT did not cause statistically significant differences in the number of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes and the haematocrit value. DMT affected…the rheological parameters of the blood in elderly women, improving the erythrocyte deformability at the lowest shear stress value and reducing the half-time of the total aggregation. Plasma viscosity and concentration of fibrinogen did not change after dance therapy. CONCLUSIONS: DMT modulate rheological properties of blood of older women. The results of this study suggest that physical exercise program for older women can prevent unfavorable age-related changes. Some indicators such as the haematological parameters, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen level were not affected by DMT in older women, suggesting the maintenance of homeostasis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Injury (shedding) of the endothelial glycocalyx layer, which alters local blood flow and microvascular permeability, is assessed by measuring components of this layer in circulating blood. The influence of renal function on their concentrations is unknown. METHODS: Plasma and urine concentrations of three shedding products (syndecan-1, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate) and creatinine were measured over 5 hours in 15 healthy volunteers and 15 postoperative patients; this guaranteed a spread of kidney functions. Renal clearances were calculated. RESULTS: Low renal clearances of syndecan-1 (mean 3.5 mL/min) and hyaluronic acid (0.8 mL/min) correlated inversely with the 6-fold variability…in the plasma concentrations of these substances (r = – 0.45 and– 0.49). Low creatinine clearance correlated inversely (r = – 0.60) and plasma creatinine directly (r = 0.52) with the two-fold variability in heparan sulfate, which was the only shedding substance that also correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.51) and, therefore, showed higher concentrations after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The present explorative study suggests that a 6-fold variability in the plasma concentrations of three commonly measured endothelial shedding products can be understood by the kidney’s ability to excrete them. This finding has implications when interpreting results of studies where shedding is assessed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is an important risk factor for heart failure. The MEK-ERK axis has been reported as a major regulator in controlling cardiac hypertrophy. TAK733 is a potent and selective MEK inhibitor that suppresses cell growth in a broad range of cell lines. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the anti-hypertrophic effect of TAK733 in cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced with norepinephrine (NE) or phenylepinephrine (PE) using H9c2 cells. To confirm the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell size and protein synthesis were measured and hypertrophy-related gene expression was estimated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To…identify the signaling pathway involved, immunoblot analysis were performed. RESULTS: We observed that NE activated MEK-ERK signaling and increased ANP and BNP expression, resulting in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. TAK733 significantly reduced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating NE-induced ERK1/2 and ERKThr188 activation, hypertrophy marker expression, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through depression of MEK activity. In addition, we examined that PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was also attenuated by TAK733. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report that TAK733 suppressed NE- or PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by repressing a crucial component of cardiac hypertrophy-related pathways. These results suggest that TAK733 may be a useful therapeutics for cardiac hypertrophy and warrants further in vivo studies.