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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Sepsis and septic shock result in impaired microcirculation and red blood cell rheology which lead to tissue hypoxia and multi-organ failure. Early administration of triiodothyronine prevents tissue hypoxia in experimental sepsis. In this context, a clinical trial was initiated to test the efficacy of acute triiodothyronine administration to combat tissue hypoxia in critically ill COVID19 patients. Here, we provide preliminary data from interim analysis of this study showing a novel acute effect of triiodothyronine on erythrocyte sedimentation rate which may have an important therapeutic impact on red blood cell rheology and tissue hypoxia in sepsis and particular in COVID19 critical…illness. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04348513. Registered 16 April 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04348513
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic reliability of a new generation wireless point-of care ultrasound device for abdominal and thoracic findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 patients (16 females, 24 males 19 –80 years, on average 56.1 years) were scanned by an experienced examiner using the new wireless Vscan Air device for abdominal and thoracic findings. The probe frequencies were 2–5 MHz (convex probe) and 3–12 MHz for the linear probe. As a reference standard, all patients were also examined using high-end ultrasound (LOGIQ E9/10). Results were interpreted independently by two examiners in consensus, also with regard to the image quality (0–4,…from not assessable = 0, to excellent 4). RESULTS: In all 40 patients (100%) examination with conventional high-end ultrasound and the Vscan Air ultrasound device was feasible. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of abdominal and thoracic findings were 63.3%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively. Most main diagnostic findings were detected using the mobile device compared to the high-end ultrasound. Limitations were found regarding characterization and classification of hepatic and renal tumorous lesions. Image quality revealed mostly minor diagnostic limitations for the mobile device, mean 2.9 (SD –0.300) and was excellent or with only minor diagnostic limitations for conventional high-end ultrasound, mean 3.25 (SD –0.438). CONCLUSION: Due to its easy application and its high diagnostic reliability, point-of-care ultrasound systems of the latest generation represent a valuable imaging method for the primary assessment of abdominal and thoracic findings, especially in patients on intensive care units or in emergency situations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A rapid decline of liver stiffness (LS) was detected by non-invasive methods in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection during treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of inflammation on LS. METHODS: We prospectively examined LS by sonographic shear-wave elastography in 217 patients during DAA therapy from treatment initiation (BL) to 12 weeks after end of therapy (SVR12). Demographic data, laboratory findings and serum levels of cytokines were determined. RESULTS: Values of LS decreased from 1.86 m/s to 1.68 m/s (p = 0.01) which was most pronounced in patients who had F4…fibrosis at BL (3.27 m/s to 2.37 m/s; p < 0.001). Initially elevated values of aminotransferases, ferritin, IgG (p < 0.001 each) and international normalized ratio (p < 0.003) declined, thrombocyte count (p = 0.007) increased. Correlations of these laboratory parameters with BL levels of LS measurement (LSM) were most apparent in patients with F1-F3 fibrosis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p = 0.031), interleukin (IL)-10 (p = 0.005) and interferon y inducible protein (IP)-10 (p < 0.001) decreased in parallel with LSM under DAA therapy and corelated with BL values. CONCLUSION: Decrease of systemic inflammatory parameters correlated with LSM under DAA therapy. We conclude that regression of LSM is attributable to the decline of inflammation rather than reflecting fibrosis.
Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is a common disease mainly manifested by hyperexcitability of multiple systems and hypermetabolism. Currently, antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioiodine therapy (RIT), and surgery are mainly used in the clinical treatment for primary hyperthyroidism. We reported a case of a 28-year-old female who received a novel treatment for primary hyperthyroidism. This patient had poor control of thyroid function while taking ATD, and her oral Methimazole (MMI) dose varied repeatedly between 20 mg qd and 15 mg qd, failing to maintain a stable status. To minimize the possible complication and to achieve drug reduction or withdrawal, she refused RIT and surgery and showed up…in our department. The patient, diagnosed with Graves’ disease (GD) and met the surgical indication after systematic clinical evaluation, was subject to ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of the partial thyroid gland with continuous oral administration of 20 mg qd MMI. The post-ablation condition was stable and the patient was discharged 2 days after the operation. Thyroid ultrasound and serum thyroid function test were examined regularly after ablation and the MMI dosage was gradually reduced according to the results of the biochemical examination. Five weeks after the operation, the patient completely discontinued the medication. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation is minimally invasive, safe, and effective, and has potential to be an alternative treatment besides the 3 classical treatments of hyperthyroidism.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prevention of rheologic alterations in erythrocytes may be important for reducing sepsis-associated morbidity and mortality. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to prevent tissue damage caused by severe ischemia and mortality resulting from sepsis. However, the effect of RIPC on erythrocytes in sepsis is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of RIPC on rheologic alterations in erythrocytes in sepsis. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. An endotoxin-induced sepsis model was established by intraperitoneally injecting 20 mg/kg LPS (LPS group). RIPC was induced in the right hind limb…using a tourniquet, with three 10-minute of ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion cycles immediately before the injection of LPS (RIPC/LPS group) or phosphate-buffered saline (RIPC group). The aggregation index (AI), time to half-maximal aggregation (T1/2), and maximal elongation index (EImax ) of the erythrocytes were measured 8 h after injection. RESULTS: The AI, T1/2, and EImax values in the LPS and RIPC/LPS groups differed significantly from those in the RIPC group, but there were no differences between the values in the LPS and RIPC/LPS groups. CONCLUSIONS: RIPC did not prevent rheologic alterations in erythrocytes in the rat model of LPS-induced endotoxemia.
Keywords: Rat, red blood cell aggregation, red blood cell deformability, sepsis
Abstract: Congenital erythrocytosis (CE) is an extremely rare disease and an infrequent cause of heamoglobin and haematocrit elevation. Genetic testing of CE is not widely available. Patients in whom a cause of erythrocytosis is not identified are classified as idiopathic erythrocytosis (IE) patients. In some types of CE thrombotic events have been reported but there is little hard evidence to advise on management in asymptomatic patients. Similarly is true for patients with IE. We describe a young patient who suffered several thromboembolic complications before the diagnosis of CE type 4 was established.
Keywords: Congenital erythrocytosis, idiopathic erythrocytosis, thrombosis, DNA sequencing
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration play a vital role. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to be correlated with the VSMCs function. Therefore, this study is designed to explore the role and mechanism of circRNA lipase maturation factor 1 (circLMF1) in Human aortic VSMCs (HASMCs). The microarray was used for detecting the expression of circLMF1 in proliferative and quiescent HASMCs. Levels of circLMF1, microRNA-125a-3p (miR-125a-3p), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell…viability, cell cycle progression, and migration were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. Western blot assay determined proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2), osteopontin (OPN), VEGFA, and FGF1 protein levels. The possible interactions between miR-125a-3p and circLMF1, and miR-125a-3p and VEGFA or FGF1 were predicted by circbank or targetscan, and then verified by a dual-luciferase reporter, RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down assays. CircLMF1, VEGFA, and FGF1 were increased, and miR-125a-3p was decreased in platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-inducted HASMCs. Functionally, circLMF1 knockdown hindered cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration in PDGF-BB-treated HASMCs. Mechanically, circLMF1 could regulate VEGFA or FGF1 expression through sponging miR-125a-3p. Our findings revealed that circLMF1 deficiency could inhibit cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration of PDGF-BB stimulated atherosclerosis model partly through the miR-125a-3p/VEGFA or FGF1 axis, suggesting that targeting circLMF1 can be a feasible therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis.
Keywords: CircLMF1, miR-125a-3p, VEGFA, FGF1, human aortic smooth muscle cells
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The study aims at assessing the relationship between blood pressure, heart geometry parameters, and the erythrocyte content of sulfur, potassium, chlorine and phosphorus, in a group of patients with laboratory systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) below 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively, who were otherwise healthy and untreated. METHODS: The study group consisted of 42 adults recruited in a primary care setting. The individuals were healthy, not undergoing any therapy and free from smoking. For each individual, data were obtained on: average 24-hour SBP and DBP, left ventricle geometry, complete blood count, lipids profile, fibrinogen, hs-CRP…and the erythrocyte concentration of sulfur (S), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl) and phosphorus (P). RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships of diastolic posterior wall thickness (PWTd) and relative wall thickness (RWT) with the concentration ratio of sulfur and potassium (S/K) in erythrocytes: PWTd and RWT increase as the S/K ratio increases. Also, SBP was found to be positively correlated with the S/K ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in sulfur content in RBCs could be an indicator of the downregulation of nitric oxide (NO) erythrocyte bioavailability exerted by endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), and, in consequence, a marker of the development of hypertension and/or adverse changes in heart geometry.
Keywords: Blood pressure measurement/monitoring, heart geometry, elemental sulfur content of erythrocytes, microelement concentration in erythrocytes
Abstract: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder characterized by chronic hemolysis and the presence of erythrocytes with low deformability, which may trigger vaso-occlusive crises. We tested the in-vitro effects of aqueous extract of vhives (Allium schoenoprasum L.) on erythrocyte deformability of SCA patients. Blood samples from 6 apparently healthy volunteers and 5 SCA patients were collected into heparin coated tubes. Both apparently healthy and SCA patient blood samples were incubated with 80μg/mL chives plant aqueous extract at 37°C for 60 min and erythrocyte deformability was measured by ektacytometry (3 Pa and 30 Pa; 37°C). Results of incubation…of apparently healthy blood samples with plant extract showed that incubation did not alter erythrocyte deformability significantly. However, for SCA blood samples, erythrocyte deformability decreased significantly with plant extract exposure at 3 Pa (p < 0.043) and 30 Pa (p < 0.043). In conclusion, although ex-vivo incubation with plant extract does not fully model gastrointestinal processing of onions, the decrease in SCA erythrocyte deformability following incubation with aqueous chives should stimulate further studies to test the in-vivo effects of this diet in sickle cell mice.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim was to retrospectively analyze the ultrasonographic and clinical characteristics of focal inflammatory masses and malignant masses of salivary gland by using B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for differential analysis. METHODS: The features of US and CEUS were retrospectively analyzed for 19 cases of focal salivary inflammatory masses and 45 cases of malignant salivary masses. All cases were confirmed by pathohistological examination. RESULTS: On B-mode US, the incidence of expansive growth patterns of malignant salivary masses (44.4%, 20/45) was significantly higher than that of focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.029).…The rate of lymphadenopathy surrounding salivary glands of malignant salivary masses (42.2%, 19/45) was significantly higher than that of focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.042). On CEUS, clear enhancement margins were more common in malignant salivary masses (44.4%, 20/45) compared to focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.029); Rapid washout was more common in malignant salivary masses (82.2%, 37/45) than focal salivary inflammatory masses (31.6%, 6/19) (p < 0.001). Rapid washout on CEUS and craniocaudal diameter were independent predictive factors in differentiating salivary inflammatory masses and malignant masses according to binary logistic regression analysis. US and CEUS achieved a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 78.9%and an accuracy of 80.0%for discrimination between salivary inflammatory masses and malignant masses. CONCLUSION: Therefore, a multimodal ultrasonographic pathway combining clinical manifestations, B-mode US and CEUS was needed to differentiate between salivary focal inflammatory masses and malignancies to avoid unnecessary biopsies.