Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 26, issue s1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The scavenging activity of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum, Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma Lucidum Karst to DPPH free radicals was investigated. It was found that among the three polysaccharides, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) exhibits the best scavenging activity. Polysaccharide loaded collagen membranes were prepared by mixing LBP with collagen, starch, glycerol, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and glutaraldehyde. In vitro drug release from membranes was evaluated. With increasing the immersion time, the release rate first increases and then slows down. Meanwhile, the scavenging activity to DPPH radicals exhibits similar variation, in agreement with a good release effect of the membrane. The optimal formulation…of collagen membrane and preparation parameters were obtained considering the overall properties and the scavenging activity to radicals.
Keywords: Collagen, lycium barbarum polysaccharides, anti-oxidative, drug release, membrane
Abstract: In this study, self-assembly regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) nanofibers were prepared and observed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Then RSF films containing nanospheres and nanofibers were prepared and dissolved with poly (L-lactide-co-ε -caprolactone) (PLCL) with a blending ratio of 30/70 in hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). In order to determine whether different nanostructures in the solution influence the morphological, structural, and mechanical properties of the final electrospun materials, flat membranes were prepared and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and mechanical testing. The secondary structure of as-spun materials with RSF nanofibers were not changed, however, the diameter of electrospun…fibers decreased and tensile strength and elongation at breaks increased. Electrospun materials with RSF nanofibers have the potential to be used for skin, cartilage, and blood vessels because of their biocompatibility and improved mechanical properties.
Abstract: A new fabrication process for designing nerve conduits with a porous ionic cross-linked alginate/chitosan composite for nervous regeneration could be prepared. New designed nerve conduits with a porous ionic cross-linked alginate/chitosan composite were developed for nervous regeneration. Nerve conduits (NCs) represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for peripheral nerve repair. NCs composed of various polysaccharides such as sodium alginate were designed and prepared by lyophilization as potential matrices for tissue engineering. The use of a porous ionic cross-linked alginate/chitosan composite could provide penetration channels that would lead to the products’ increasing penetration rate properties. Furthermore, the use of a…porous ionic cross-linked alginate/chitosan composite also has a highly cross-linked structure, which would give the products relatively good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the drug could be incorporated into nerve conduits as a new drug-carrying system for nerve regeneration because of its porous and cross-linked structures.
Abstract: The calcium ferrite nano-particles (CaFe2 O4 NPs) were synthesized using a sol-gel method for targeted drug delivery application. The proposed nano-particles were initially prepared by mixing calcium and iron nitrates that were added with citric acid in order to prevent agglomeration and subsequently calcined at a temperature of 550°C to obtain small particle size. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using an XRD (X-ray diffraction), which revealed the configuration of orthorhombic structures of the CaFe2 O4 nano-particles. A crystallite size of ~13.59 nm was obtained using a Scherer’s formula. Magnetic analysis using a VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer analysis),…revealed that the synthesized particles exhibited super-paramagnetic behavior having magnetization saturation of approximately 88.3emu/g. Detailed observation via the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the calcium ferrite nano-particles were spherical in shape.
Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, drug delivery
Abstract: The infection in burn wounds covered by biologic dressings leads to wound deepening and chronic wounds. The introduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into biologic dressings is a beneficial method to prevent wound infection and simultaneously promote wound healing. In this study, an AgNP-loaded silk fibroin (SF)/carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) composite sponge was fabricated. AgNPs with a mean diameter of 4.9 nm was synthesized in SF solution in situ. While CMC was incorporated and chemically crosslinked, SF was insolubilized by ethanol annealing. SEM imaging determined that the AgNP-loaded SF/CMC sponge was more porous than the pure SF sponge. Anti-bacterial results, measured by disk-diffusion…and bacterial suspension assay, showed that the AgNP-loaded SF/CMC sponge demonstrated effective anti-bacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa , and that its anti-P. aeruginosa activity was higher than that of AQUACEL®; Ag. The introduction of CMC improved the water absorption capacity, retention ability, and water vapor transmission rate of the sponge, which are all important properties of wound dressings.
Abstract: The security risk of magnesium alloys used as biodegradable implant material was evaluated in this study. Dose-response assessment was conducted by using toxicological data from authoritative public health agencies (World Health Organization) and assuming 1~3 years of uniform corrosion. Through modification calculation, the tolerable corrosion rate of biodegradable magnesium alloys in vivo was proposed, which theoretically ensured the bio-safety of the degradation products. The tolerable limits corresponding to various component elements in magnesium alloys were considered separately, although there are deficits in the toxicological data of some component elements. The influence of corrosion on the strength of magnesium alloys was…evaluated, which would contribute to the rationally utilization of magnesium alloys as degradable implant materials. This study illustrates that not only toxicological calculations but also mechanical performance should be taken into consideration when developing novel degradable metallic implant.
Abstract: Clinical cases show that zirconia restoration could happen fracture by accident under overloading after using a period of time. The purpose of this study is to research mechanical behavior and predict lifetime of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal contact loading with experiments. Cyclic normal contact loading test and three point bending test are carried on specimens made of two brands of dental zirconia ceramic to obtain flexure strength and damage degree after different number of loading cycles. By means of damage mechanics model, damage degree under different number of contact loading cycles are calculated according to flexure strength, and…verified by SEM photographs of cross section morphology of zirconia ceramics specimen phenomenologically. Relation curve of damage degree and number of cycles is fitted by polynomial fitting, then the number of loading cycles can be concluded when the specimen is complete damage. Strength degradation of two brands dental zirconia ceramics are researched in vitro , and prediction method of contact fatigue lifetime is established.
Abstract: Caused by acute radiation skin reaction and injury, receiving radiotherapy treatment process is often performed side-effects on cancer patients. The clinical manifestations of skin irritation, itching, peeling, pigmentation, ulcer bleeding and other symptoms, in addition to causing patient discomfort and affecting quality of life, may increase the risk of local or systemic infection, and lead to interruption of radiation therapy. At present, for acute radiation dermatitis, there is no uniform treatment, and the various methods are evaluated variously. In this study, the authors focus on broken pearls using room temperature super extraction system, the water extraction process of wet-grinding method,…nano-scale pearl, along with a large number of high purity natural amino acid extracts in the water. The room-temperature super-extraction system (RTSES) can be extracted from a relatively high-volume of pearl extract. We use pearl extract as the main component of experimental material, and the blending of pearl extract and poly (γ -glutamic acid) is used to form biodegradable composite hydrogels. This study aims to evaluate the use of RTSES to extract the major active components of pearl and enhance their anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis effects. The possible effect of pearl extract on inducing apoptosis in human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) under the exposure of low dose UVB has been investigated. Various concentrations of pearl extracts have been used to study the effect of low dosage UVB on HaCaT cells. The results show that pearl extract has no toxic effect on HaCaT cells. Combining the pearl extract and poly (γ -glutamic acid) hydrogels with UVB irradiation would decrease the inflammation and apoptosis of HaCaT cells. The commercial pearl extract has the potential to inhibit radiation dermatitis occurring within keratinocyte cells.
Keywords: pearl extract, poly (γ-glutamic acid), UVB irradiation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis
Abstract: Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess…the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites.
Abstract: Surface roughness has been considered as an important influencing factor for cell response. The aim of this study was to find out whether MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblast-like cell line, can sense the amplitudes of surface topography of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and if surface-dependent cell morphology would be presented on the substrata with varied roughness. A series of polished samples (Ra : 0.30~1.80 μ m) were prepared to produce macroscopically parallel grooves using different grades of silicon carbide sandpaper (#100, #320, #600, #1000 and #2000). The experimental results indicated that the behavior and morphology of cells largely depended on the…substrata where they were cultured. More efficient proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was shown on the surfaces with Ra of 0.50~1.00 μ m, with respect to either the rougher or the smoother specimens. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cells seeded on the Ti6Al4V surfaces within this narrow range responded to the increasing surface roughness with increased proliferation. Contact guidance of cells could be observed on the rougher specimens (Ra : 0.80~1.00 μ m), whereas more random orientations were exhibited for the adsorbed cells on the smoother surfaces (Ra : 0.50~0.60 μ m).