Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 245.00
Impact Factor 2023: 1.0
The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Polysaccharide hydrogel is one of the most important materials for the colon target drug release system. However, the degradation time of polysaccharide hydrogel is much longer than the retention time in the colon. The drugs are expelled from the body before being released. OBJECTIVE: In order to match the degradation of drug carriers and their retention time in the colon, a rapidly degradable konjac glucomannan (KGM) hydrogel was designed for colon target drug release. METHODS: A crosslinker containing azo bond, olsalazine, was used to prepare the rapidly degradable KGM hydrogel. The degradation and drug release…of the hydrogels with different crosslinking densities in the normal buffer and the human fecal medium were studied to evaluate the efficiency of colon drug release. RESULTS: More than 50% of the KGM hydrogel by weight was degraded and more than 60% of the 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) was released within 48 h in 5% w/v human fecal medium. CONCLUSION: The drug was released more rapidly in a simulated colon environment than in a normal buffer. Furthermore, the drug release was controlled by the degradation of the hydrogel. The KGM hydrogel containing azo crosslinker has great potential for colon drug release.
Keywords: Konjac glucomannan, hydrogel, azo bond, colon target, drug release
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The scientific revolution in the treatment of many illnesses has been significantly aided by stem cells. This paper presents an optimal control on a mathematical model of chemotherapy and stem cell therapy for cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To develop effective hybrid techniques that combine the optimal control theory (OCT) with the evolutionary algorithm and multi-objective swarm algorithm. The developed technique is aimed to reduce the number of cancerous cells while utilizing the minimum necessary chemotherapy medications and minimizing toxicity to protect patients’ health. METHODS: Two hybrid techniques are proposed in this paper. Both techniques combined OCT…with the evolutionary algorithm and multi-objective swarm algorithm which included MOEA/D, MOPSO, SPEA II and PESA II. This study evaluates the performance of two hybrid techniques in terms of reducing cancer cells and drug concentrations, as well as computational time consumption. RESULTS: In both techniques, MOEA/D emerges as the most effective algorithm due to its superior capability in minimizing tumour size and cancer drug concentration. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of integrating OCT and evolutionary algorithms as a robust approach for optimizing cancer chemotherapy treatment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sand therapy is a non-pharmacological physiotherapy method that uses the natural environment and resources of Xinjiang to treat through the heat transfer and magnetic effects of sand. OBJECTIVE: Employing the two-phase flow-Casson blood flow model, we investigate the mechanism of atherosclerosis prevention via sand therapy, offering a biomechanical theoretical rationale for the prevention of atherosclerosis through sand therapy via the prism of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). METHODS: Sand therapy experiments were conducted to obtain popliteal artery blood flow velocity, and blood was considered as a two-phase flow composed of plasma and red blood cells, and…CFD method was applied to analyze the hemodynamic effects of Casson’s blood viscosity model before and after sand therapy. RESULTS: (1) The blood flow velocity increased by 0.24 m/s and 0.04 m/s at peak systolic and diastolic phases, respectively, after sand therapy; the axial velocity of blood vessels increased by 28.56% after sand therapy. (2) The average red blood cell viscosity decreased by 0.00014 Pa ⋅ s after sand therapy. (3) The low wall shear stress increased by 1.09 Pa and the high wall shear stress reached 41.47 Pa after sand therapy. (4) The time-averaged wall shear stress, shear oscillation index and relative retention time were reduced after sand therapy. CONCLUSION: The increase of blood flow velocity after sand therapy can reduce the excessive deposition of cholesterol and other substances, the decrease of erythrocyte viscosity is beneficial to the migration of erythrocytes to the vascular center, the increase of low wall shear stress has a positive effect on the prevention of atherosclerosis, and the decrease of time-averaged wall shear stress, shear oscillation index and relative retention time can reduce the occurrence of thrombosis.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The postoperative varus/valgus stability assessment in stress X-rays has been established as an evaluation index. However, it is performed by the two-dimensional (2D) method rather than the three-dimensional (3D) method. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the precision and reproducibility of measuring varus/valgus stress X-rays three-dimensionally and to examine varus/valgus stability under anesthesia in imageless robotic assisted total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). METHODS: This prospective study analyzed 52 consecutive rTKAs (five males, 67 ± 5.3 years; 47 females, 74 ± 5.9 years). Postoperative varus/valgus stress X-rays in knee extension under anesthesia at manual maximum stress were…three-dimensionally assessed by 2D–3D image matching technique using the 3D bone and component models. Varus/valgus angle between components (VV angle) in no stress, valgus stress, varus stress, medial joint opening (MJO), and lateral joint opening (LJO) were evaluated, clarifying this method’s precision and reproducibility and valgus/varus stability. RESULTS: All parameters’ precision and reproducibility had <1° mean differences and high intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients. Bland–Altman plots showed no fixed and proportional bias. Non-stress VV angle, valgus VV angle, varus VV angle, MJO, and LJO were 3.6 ± 1.2°, 1.0 ± 1.4°, 7.1 ± 1.9°, 1.5 ± 1.0 mm, and 2.8 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: This prospective study demonstrated that (1) the three-dimensional measurement method provided sufficient precision and reproducibility, and (2) the rTKAs could achieve good postoperative varus/valgus stability with a small standard deviation.
Keywords: Robotic total knee arthroplasty, stress X ray, 2D–3D image matching technique, precision, reproducibility
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement is a popular dental material due mainly to its analgesic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The formulation of ZOE cement from nano particle-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) has the potential to increase these properties as well as reduce its adverse effects to the surrounding tissues. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the subcutaneous tissue response towards nano ZOE cements (ZOE-A and ZOE-B) in comparison to conventional ZOE (ZOE-K). METHODS: Test materials were implanted into 15 New Zealand white rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained after 7, 14, and 30 days (n = 5 per period)…for histopathological evaluation of inflammatory cell infiltrate, fibrous tissue condensation, and abscess formation. RESULTS: ZOE-A showed the lowest score for the variable macrophage and lymphocyte at day 7. Both ZOE-A and ZOE-B presented lower fibrous tissue condensation and abscess formation compared to conventional ZOE-K. By day 30, ZOE-A exhibited less lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrate compared to the other materials, while ZOE-B had the lowest score for macrophages. ZOE-K exerted higher inflammatory cell response at almost all of the experimental periods. All of the materials resulted in thin fiber condensation after 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Rabbit tissue implanted with ZOE-A and ZOE-B showed better response compared to ZOE-K.
Keywords: Tissue reaction, biocompatibility, nanomaterial, nano zinc oxide eugenol,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study explores the dynamics of a mathematical model, utilizing ordinary differential equations (ODE), to depict the interplay between cancer cells and effector cells under chemotherapy. The stability of the equilibrium points in the model is analysed using the Jacobian matrix and eigenvalues. Additionally, bifurcation analysis is conducted to determine the optimal values for the control parameters. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the model and control strategies, benchmarking simulations are performed using the PlatEMO platform. METHODS: The Pure Multi-objective Optimal Control Problem (PMOCP) and the Hybrid Multi-objective Optimal Control Problem (HMOCP) are two different…forms of optimal control problems that are solved using revolutionary metaheuristic optimisation algorithms. The utilization of the Hypervolume (HV) performance indicator allows for the comparison of various metaheuristic optimization algorithms in their efficacy for solving the PMOCP and HMOCP. RESULTS: Results indicate that the MOPSO algorithm excels in solving the HMOCP, with M-MOPSO outperforming for PMOCP in HV analysis. CONCLUSION: Despite not directly addressing immediate clinical concerns, these findings indicates that the stability shifts at critical thresholds may impact treatment efficacy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intervertebral cages used in clinical applications were often general products with standard specifications, which were challenging to match with the cervical vertebra and prone to cause stress shielding and subsidence. OBJECTIVE: To design and fabricate customized tantalum (Ta) intervertebral fusion cages that meets the biomechanical requirements of the cervical segment. METHODS: The lattice intervertebral cages were customized designed and fabricated by the selective laser melting. The joint and muscle forces of the cervical segment under different movements were analyzed using reverse dynamics method. The stress characteristics of cage, plate, screws and vertebral endplate were analyzed…by finite element analysis. The fluid flow behaviors and permeability of three lattice structures were simulated by computational fluid dynamics. Compression tests were executed to investigate the biomechanical properties of the cages. RESULTS: Compared with the solid cages, the lattice-filled structures significantly reduced the stress of cages and anterior fixation system. In comparison to the octahedroid and quaddiametral lattice-filled cages, the bitriangle lattice-filled cage had a lower stress shielding rate, higher permeability, and superior subsidence resistance ability. CONCLUSION: The inverse dynamics simulation combined with finite element analysis is an effective method to investigate the biomechanical properties of the cervical vertebra during movements.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of artificial joints is one of the most important factors affecting the clinical outcomes of joint arthroplasty. Although the possibility of in vivo UHMWPE degradation caused by absorbed lipids has been reported, a quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon has not yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the lipid index (LI) as a quantitative indicator of the amount of absorbed lipids and the first step to quantify their effects on UHMWPE. METHODS: The LI was defined using the infrared spectrum obtained with a Fourier-transform infrared…spectrophotometer and verified using the retrieved UHMWPE components. RESULTS: The LI was consistent with the amount of extract recovered in reflux extraction with hexane. In addition, the LI could replace lipid extraction for calculating the oxidation index (OI) because the value obtained by subtracting the LI from the OI showed good agreement with the OI obtained after lipid extraction. CONCLUSION: The LI represents the amount of lipids absorbed by UHMWPE and is useful for quantitatively evaluating the effects of lipids on UHMWPE. In addition, the LI enables OI measurements that are unaffected by absorbed lipids without requiring troublesome lipid-extraction procedures.
Keywords: Peak separation, FTIR, retrieval study, UHMWPE component, oxidation index
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ureteral stents are commonly used in urology. However, complications such as encrustation and infection on the surface of the stent, and injury to the ureteral mucosa can occur after implantation, causing discomfort for patients. OBJECTIVE: We intend to confirm the biosafety of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrophilic coating and its lubrication properties for surface modification of ureteral stents to reduce friction and improve patient comfort. METHODS: Based on our previous studies, we have developed a PVP hydrophilic coating for surface modification of ureteral stents. We firstly investigated the cytotoxicity, intradermal irritation, delayed type hypersensitivity, and acute systemic…reactions of stent coating extracts. We further characterized the break strength, retention strength, and dynamic friction of the stent. RESULTS: The cell survival rate of all experimental groups was greater than 70%. No hypersensitivity reaction, systemic toxicity reaction, or obvious intradermal reaction were observed. The above results indicate that the test results of the modified stent meet the requirements of ISO 10993-5: 2009 (Cytotoxicity); ISO 10993-10:2021 (Sensitization and Irritation); ISO 10993-11:2017 (Acute Systemic Toxicity). After soaking in artificial urine for an extended period, there was no obvious change in its super-slip performance. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the safety and lubrication characteristics of PVP hydrophilic coating for ureteral stent surface modification. The performance of this coating has the potential to reduce complications after stent implantation, thereby improving patient comfort, reducing medical burden, and has a good clinical application prospect.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is imperative to design a suitable material for bone regeneration that emulates the microstructure and compositional framework of natural bone while mitigating the shortcomings of current repair materials. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to synthesize a 3D aerogel scaffold composed of PLCL/gelatin electro-spun nanofiber loaded with Simvastatin and investigate its biocompatibility as well as its performance in cell proliferation and ossification differentiation. METHODS: PLCL/gelatin nanofibers were fabricated in coaxial electrospinning with simvastatin added. Fibers were fragmented, pipetted into molds, frozen, and dried. The morphology of fibers and contact angles in 4 groups…of PLCL, PLCL@S, 3D-PLCL, and 3D-PLCL@S was observed and compared. MC3T3-E1 cells were planted at the four materials to observe cell growth status, and ALP and ARS tests were conducted to compare the ossification of cells. RESULTS: TEM scanning showed the coaxial fiber of the inner PLCL and outer gelatin. The mean diameter of the PLCL/gelatin fibers is 561 ± 95 nm and 631 ± 103 nm after the drug loading. SEM showed the fibers in the 3D-PLCL@S group were more curled and loose with more space interlaced. The contact angle in this group was 27.1°, the smallest one. Drug release test demonstrated that simvastatin concentration in the 3D-PLCL@S could remain at a relatively high level compared to the control group. The cell proliferation test showed that MC3T3-EI cells could embed into the scaffold deeply and exhibit higher viability in the 3D-PLCL@S group than other groups. The ossification tests of ALP and ARS also inferred that the 3D-PLCL@S scaffold could offer a better osteogenic differentiation matrix. CONCLUSION: The PLCL/gelatin aerogel scaffold, when loaded with Simvastatin, demonstrates a more pronounced potential in enhancing osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesize that this scaffold could serve as a promising material for addressing bone defects.
Keywords: 3D scaffold, aerogel, bone regeneration, simvastatin