Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 26, issue s1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The paper presents an application of the FSI technique to determine hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta (AA). To establish boundary conditions for the FSI study, MR anatomical data and 4D MRI velocity-mapping data (in three blood flow velocity directions and time) were collected to acquire realistic geometry of the AA and blood velocity. The mechanical parameters of the patient-specific aortic wall were applied in FSI simulations to describe wall mechanics and blood flow in the AA. Comparison of calculated and measured blood flow patterns and flow rate waveforms shows good agreement, which proves that wall pulsations should be incorporated into…simulations that determine hemodynamics in the AA. The results of this work suggest that FSI analysis based on patient-specific data, such as the mechanical parameters of the aortic wall, real geometry of the aorta, and 4D flow information, might be used to predict the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: The existence of large blood vessels seriously impacts the results of microwave ablation on heat transfer of surrounding tissue, and the research of influences about large blood vessels could be essential and significant. The temperature distribution in the tissue was analyzed with a microwave heating source by finite element method. The model, where the blood vessel is parallel to antenna, has different distances from antenna to blood vessel. As distance was greater than 20mm, the effect of blood vessel that was parallel to antenna was ignored and the ablation area was elliptical-like. When distance was less than 10mm, the part…of asymmetrical coagulated area was on the right side of blood vessel. Therefore, the temperature contour by different conditions could provide numerical references, which is whether to block blood vessel or not, to achieve the aim of guiding the clinical practice, according to the locations of tumor and blood vessel.
Keywords: Microwave ablation, blood vessel, microwave antenna, ablation area
Abstract: Considering the blood coagulation induced by the heating of radio frequency ablation (RFA) and the mechanism of aneurysm embolization, we proposed that RFA may be used to treat arterial aneurysm. But the safety of this method should be investigated. A finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate temperature and pressure distribution in aneurysm with different electrode position, electric field intensity and ablation time. When the electrode is in the middle of the artery aneurysm sac, temperature rose clearly in half side of artery aneurysm, which is not suitable for RFA. Temperature rose in the whole aneurysm when the electrode…is under the artery aneurysm orifice, which is suitable for the ablation therapy. And in this way, the highest temperature was 69.585°C when power was 5.0 V/mm with 60 s. It can promote the coagulation and thrombosis generation in the aneurysm sac while the outside tissue temperature rises a little. Meanwhile, the pressure (10 Pa) at the top of aneurysm sac with electrode insertion is less than that (60 Pa) without electrode, so electrode implant may protect the aneurysm from rupture. The results can provide a theoretical basis for interventional treatment of aneurysm with RFA.
Keywords: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), arterial aneurysm, temperature distribution, finite element method (FEM)
Abstract: Since the vessels in the biological tissues are characterized by low seepage Reynolds numbers and contracting or expanding walls, more attention is paid on the viscous flow outside the porous pipe with small expansion or contraction. This paper presents a numerical solution of the flow and heat transfer outside an expanding or contracting porous cylinder. The coupled nonlinear similarity equations are solved by Bvp4c, which is a collocation method with MATLAB. The effects of the different physical parameters, namely the permeability Reynolds number,the expansion ratio and the Prandtl number, on the velocity and temperature distribution are obtained and the results…are shown graphically.
Keywords: Expanding porous cylinder, expansion ratio, similarity solution, heat transfer
Abstract: A method is proposed to determine the mechanical properties of retina based on in vivo experiments and numerical simulations. First, saline water was injected into the anterior chamber of the right eye of a cat to cause acute high intraocular pressure. After the eye was scanned using optical coherence tomography under different acute high intraocular pressures, the images of the retina in vivo were obtained and the thickness of the retina was calculated. Then, the three-dimensional structure of the optic nerve head including the retina and the choroid were reconstructed using image processing technology. Three different material models…for the retina and the choroid were taken and the finite element models of the optic nerve head were constructed. Finally, an inverse method was proposed to determine the parameters of a constitutive model of the retina and of the choroid simultaneously. The results showed that the deformation of the retina can be properly simulated taking into consideration the nonlinear elastic properties of the retina and of the choroid.
Abstract: Carotid atherosclerotic disease is highly related to cerebrovascular events. Carotid endarterectomy is the common operation method to treat this disease. In this study, hemodynamics analyses are performed on the carotid arteries in three patients, whose right carotid artery had been treated by carotid endarterectomy and the left carotid artery remained untreated. Flow and loading conditions are compared between these treated and untreated carotid arteries and evaluation of the operative results is discussed. Patient-specific models are reconstructed from MDCT data. Intraoperative ultrasound flow measurements are performed on the treated carotid arteries and the obtained data are used as the boundary conditions…of the models and the validations of the computational results. Finite volume method is employed to solve the transport equations and the flow and loading conditions of the models are reported. The results indicate that: (i) in two of the three patients, the internal-to-external flow rate ratio in the untreated carotid artery is larger than that in the treated one, and the average overall flow split ratio by summing up the data of both the left and right carotid arteries is about 2.15; (ii) in the carotid bulb, high wall shear stress occurs at the bifurcation near the external carotid artery in all of the cases without hard plaques; (iii) the operated arteries present low time-averaged wall shear stress at the carotid bulb, especially for the treated arteries with patch technique, indicating the possibility of the recurrence of stenosis; (iv) high temporal gradient of wall shear stress (>35 Pa/s) is shown in the narrowing regions along the vessels; and (v) in the carotid arteries without serious stenosis, the maximum velocity magnitude during mid-diastole is 32~37% of that at systolic peak, however, in the carotid artery with 50% stenosis by hard plaques, this value is nearly doubled (64%). The computational work quantifies flow and loading distributions in the treated and untreated carotid arteries of the same patient, contributing to evaluation of the operative results and indicating the recurrent sites of potential atheromatous plaques.
Abstract: The study involved 300 elderly patients with chronic periapical periodontitis. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups. The treatment for group A used a Mtwo Ni-Ti rotary instrument combined with ultrasonic irrigation of a 2.5% NaOCl solution. The group B used the same instrument combined with ultrasonic irrigation of an active silver ion antibacterial solution. The group C used the same instrument combined with syringe irrigation of a 2.5% NaOCl solution. The root canal fillings were performed immediately after canal preparation. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, patients self-assessed pain levels according to the VAS table. The three groups returned…after seven days so their postoperative acute reactions could be evaluated clinically. After six and twelve months, efficacy was evaluated. The self-assessed pain levels for group A and B were significantly lower than group C. The incidence of postoperative acute reactions after seven days for group A and B were significantly lower than those of group C. The effective rates after six and twelve months did not differ among these groups. The single-visit root canal treatment with a nickel-titanium rotary instrument combined with ultrasonic irrigation for elderly patients with chronic periapical periodontitis achieved short and long term efficacy and stability.
Keywords: Chronic apical periodontitis, single-visit root canal treatment, ultrasonic irrigation, active silver ion antibacterial solution
Abstract: A double J stent has been used widely these days for patients with a ureteral stenosis or with renal stones and lithotripsy. The stent has multiple side holes in the shaft, which supply detours for urine flow. Even though medical companies produce various forms of double J stents that have different numbers and positions of side holes in the stent, the function of side holes in fluid dynamics has not been studied well. Here, the flow rate and pattern around the side holes of a double J stent were evaluated in curved models of a stented ureter based on the…human anatomy and straight models for comparison. The total flow rate was higher in the stent with a greater number of side holes. The inflow and outflow to the stent through the side holes in the curved ureter was more active than in the straight ureter, which means the flow through side holes exists even in the ureter without ureteral stenosis or occlusion and even in the straight ureter. When the diameter of the ureter changed, the in-stent flow rate in the ureter did not change and the extraluminal flow rate was higher in the ureter with a greater diameter.
Abstract: Wearable robotic devices provide safe and intensive rehabilitation, enabling repeated motions for motor function recovery in stroke patients. The aim of this small case series was to demonstrate the training effects of a three-week robotic leg orthosis, and to investigate possible mechanisms of the sensory-motor alterations and improvements by using gait analysis and EMG. Three survivors of chronic strokes participated in robot-assisted gait therapy for three weeks. EMG signals from the rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MG), as well as kinetics and kinematics data of the lower limb, were recorded before and after…the training. The normalized root mean squared (RMS) values of the muscles, the joint moments, joint angles, and the results of two clinical scales (Berg Balance scale, BBS, and the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment, LE-FMA) were used for analysis. All participants experienced improved balance and functional performances and increased BBS and LE-FMA scores. The EMG results showed there was an increase of the normalized RMS values of the MG and BF on the affected side. Additionally, EMG activities of the agonist and antagonist pair (i.e. RF and BF) appeared to return to similar levels after training. The peak moment of hip flexor, knee extensor, and plantar flexor, which all contributed to push-off power, were found to have increased after training. In summary, the three-week training period using the wearable RLO improved the three participants’ gait performance by regaining push-off power and improved muscle activation and walking speed.
Keywords: Chronic stroke, robotic leg orthosis, gait performance, EMG
Abstract: In the area of manufacturing surgical instruments, the ability to rapidly design, prototype and test surgical instruments is critical. This paper provides a simple case study of the rapid development of two bio-mechanism based surgical instruments which are ergonomic, aesthetic and were successfully designed, prototyped and conceptually tested in a very short period of time.