Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 26, issue s1
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: A new rehabilitation robot was designed. The robot included a suspension mechanism, a drive unit, and an adjustment mechanism. Additionally, innovative weight loss mechanism increased the dynamical device so that it could be used with patients of varying lower extremity muscle strengths. The relationship of hip and knee angles with height, step length, and gait cycle was studied. It was developed to generate different trajectories for different patients. Kinematics and dynamics were studied to lay the foundation for control.
Keywords: Rehabilitation robot, medical design, trajectory planning, dynamics, kinematics
Abstract: In this paper, we describe a new multi-mode telestimulation system for brain-microstimulation for the navigation of a robo-pigeon, a new type of bio-robot based on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques. The multi-mode telestimulation system overcomes neuron adaptation that was a key shortcoming of the previous single-mode stimulation by the use of non-steady TTL biphasic pulses accomplished by randomly alternating pulse modes. To improve efficiency, a new behavior model (“virtual fear”) is proposed and applied to the robo-pigeon. Unlike the previous “virtual reward” model, the “virtual fear” behavior model does not require special training. The performance and effectiveness of the system to…alleviate the adaptation of neurons was verified by a robo-pigeon navigation test, simultaneously confirming the practicality of the “virtual fear” behavioral model.
Abstract: A number of issues that exist in common fracture reduction surgeries can be mitigated by robot-assisted fracture reduction. However, the safety of patients and the performance of the robot, which are closely related to the muscle forces, are important indexes that restrict the development of robots. Though researchers have done a great deal of work on the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, particularly the aspects related to the function of the robot, is not well understood. For this reason, we represent the complex biological system by establishing a dynamic biomechanical model based on the…Hill muscle model and the Kane method for the robot that we have developed and the musculoskeletal system. We analyzed the relationship between the motion and force of the bone fragments and the robot during a simulation of a robot-assisted fracture reduction. The influence of the muscle force on the robot system was predicted and managed. The simulation results provide a basis for a fracture reduction path plan that ensures patient safety and a useful reference for the mechanical design of the robot.
Abstract: How to improve placement accuracy of needle insertion into liver tissue is of paramount interest to physicians. A robot-assisted system was developed to experimentally demonstrate its advantages in needle insertion surgeries. Experiments of needle insertion into porcine liver tissue were performed with conic tip needle (diameter 8 mm) and bevel tip needle (diameter 1.5 mm) in this study. Manual operation was designed to compare the performance of the presented robot-assisted system. The real-time force curves show outstanding advantages of robot-assisted operation in improving the controllability and stability of needle insertion process by comparing manual operation. The statistics of maximum force…and average force further demonstrates robot-assisted operation causes less oscillation. The difference of liver deformation created by manual operation and robot-assisted operation is very low, 1 mm for average deformation and 2 mm for maximum deformation. To conclude, the presented robot-assisted system can improve placement accuracy of needle by stably control insertion process.
Keywords: Robot-assisted system, needle insertion, manual operation, insertion force
Abstract: This case study describes the effects of a wearable dynamic knee orthosis to supplement walking training in a patient suffering knee hyperextension. The subject was a 57-year old female who was 3.5 years post-brain tumor surgery. She was presented with impaired right lower extremity muscle performance, increased lower extremity muscle tension, and right knee hyperextension. She reported pain at the right knee joint and tibialis anterior after 10 minutes of over-ground walk. Fifteen one-hour sessions of gait training with robotic knee orthosis (RKO) were provided an over 3 weeks period. The subject demonstrated improvement with right lower limb kinematic and…kinetic measures of gait. Peak flexion degree and moment increased (from -4.99° to 13.47°, and from 0.18 Nm/kg to 0.20 Nm/kg respectively).Extension peak moment decreased from 1.03 Nm/kg to 0.53 Nm/kg. Knee joint force decreased from 0.68 N to 0.45 N. Ground reaction force (GRF) reduced from 11.06N to 10.11N. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) improved from 45/56 to 51/56. No difference was observed in Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Lower limb (FMA-LE) scores. Gait training that integrates an intention-based RKO for correcting knee hyperextension can be clinically effective. The persistence and generalizability of these results need to be further investigated.
Abstract: The measurement of volume pulse waves may be easily affected based on the measured position (different fingers or toes), body posture, as well as other factors. Therefore, interferences during measurement need to be removed. For this study, relevant parameters of volume pulse wave were obtained by changing the affecting factors. The data were analyzed in order to indicate the differences in volume pulse wave parameters among different fingers and toes in four postures. Results showed that when subjects were lying, inclined or in a sitting posture, volume pulse wave parameters of the index finger, middle finger and ring finger on…both hands displayed no apparent differences. When subjects were in a sitting posture, volume pulse wave parameters of the big, second and third toes on both feet showed no significant differences.
Keywords: Photoplethysmography, volume pulse wave parameters, different postures
Abstract: A volume of research has been performed on the optical surface profilometry in the field of biomedicine and the optical system with the phase-measuring method becomes the main emphasis of the research. In this research, a brand new fringe projection profilometry with multiple frequencies is described for measuring the biological tissue. A pork liver, as an object, is regarded as a human organ and a DMD projector is used to generate the multi-frequency fringe patterns. The wrapped phase maps are obtained by means of the five-step phase shifting method and calculated via a peak searching algorithm in which the process…of measuring the point on the surface of the object is independent so that the step of unwrapping the phase can be avoided. The final results given are acceptable which confirm this method and suggest its enormous potential for the biomedical measurements.
Abstract: This study investigates the radiation safety of a newly designed magnetic induction sensor. This novel magnetic induction sensor uses a two-arm Archimedean spiral coil (TAASC) as the exciter. A human head model with a real anatomical structure was used to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature change. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) was used to determine the values of the peak 10-g SAR under different operating parameters (current, frequency, horizontal distance between the excitation coil and the receiver coil, vertical distance between the top of the head model and the XOY plane, position of excitation coil, and volume…of hemorrhage). Then, the highest response for the SAR and temperature rise was determined. The results showed that this new magnetic induction sensor is safe in the initial state; for safety reasons, the TAASC current should not exceed 4 A. The scalp tissue absorbed most of the electromagnetic energy. The TAASC’s SAR/thermal performance was close to that of the circular coil.
Keywords: Specific absorption rate (SAR), temperature rise, magnetic induction, two-arm Archimedean spiral coil (TAASC), human head model
Abstract: Using optics combined with automatic control and computer real-time image detection technology, a novel noninvasive method of noncontact pressure manometry was developed based on the airflow and laser detection technology in this study. The new esophageal venous pressure measurement system was tested in-vitro experiments. A stable and adjustable pulse stream was produced from a self-developed pump and a laser emitting apparatus could generate optical signals which can be captured by image acquisition and analysis system program. A synchronization system simultaneous measured the changes of air pressure and the deformation of the vein wall to capture the vascular deformation while simultaneously…record the current pressure value. The results of this study indicated that the pressure values tested by the new method have good correlation with the actual pressure value in animal experiments. The new method of noninvasive pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology is accurate, feasible, repeatable and has a good application prospects.
Abstract: Cavitation has great application potential in microvessel damage and targeted drug delivery. Concerning cavitation, droplet vaporization has been widely investigated in vitro and in vivo with plasmonic nanoparticles. Droplets with a liquid dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) core enclosed in an albumin shell have a stable and simple structure with good characteristics of laser absorbing; thus, DDFP droplets could be an effective aim for laser-induced cavitation. The DDPF droplet was prepared and perfused in a mimic microvessel in the optical microscopic system with a passive acoustic detection module. Three patterns of laser-induced cavitation in the droplets were observed. The emitted acoustic…signals showed specific spectrum components at specific time points. It was suggested that a nanosecond laser pulse could induce cavitation in DDPF droplets, and specific acoustic signals would be emitted. Analyzing its characteristics could aid in monitoring the laser-induced cavitation process in droplets, which is meaningful to theranostic application.