Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 24, issue 6
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The development of human-like brain phantom is important for data acquisition in microwave imaging. The characteristics of the phantom should be based on the real human body dielectric properties such as relative permittivity. The development of phantom includes the greymatter and whitematter regions, each with a relative permittivity of 38 and 28 respectively at 10 GHz frequency. Results were compared with the value obtained from the standard library of Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulation application and the existing research by Fernandez and Gabriel. Our experimental results show a positive outcome, in which the proposed mixture was adequate to represent real…human brain for data acquisition.
Abstract: In this study, the effects of adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Ad-GDNF) on apoptosis of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were investigated. After BMSCs infected with Ad-GDNF were treated with 500 μM H2 O2 at 37° C for 1 h, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), MTT and TUNEL methods were used to detect cell viability and apoptosis. In addition, the levels of GDNF in the supernatants in BMSCs cultures were detected by ELISA, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-a in the supernatants and apoptosis-related protein Bax and Bcl-2 in cell pellets were…investigated. The results showed that H2 O2 treatment significantly induced apoptosis of BMSCs and decreased the viability of BMSCs. However, Ad-GDNF significantly reversed the effects of H2 O2 on BMSCs. Furthermore, Ad-GDNF significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 and TNF-a and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio in BMSCs treated by H2 O2 . In conclusion, Ad-GDNF inhibits apoptosis of BMSCs induced by H2 O2 , and the mechanisms may be related to down-regulating the expression of IL-6 and TNF-a and up-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in BMSCs.
Abstract: The application of bone substitutes and cements has a long standing history in augmenting fractures as a complement to routine fracture fixation techniques. Nevertheless, such use is almost always in conjunction with definite means of fracture fixation such as intramedullary pins or bone plates. The idea of using biomaterials as the primary fixation bears the possibility of simultaneous fixation and bone enhancement. Intramedullary recruitment of bone cements is suggested in this study to achieve this goal. However, as the method needs primary testings in animal models before human implementation, and since the degree of ambulation is not predictable in animals,…this pilot study only evaluates the outcomes regarding the feasibility and safety of this method in the presence of primary bone fixators. A number of two sheep were used in this study. Tibial transverse osteotomies were performed in both animals followed by external skeletal fixation. The medullary canals, which have already been prepared by removing the marrow through proximal and distal drill holes, were then injected with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The outcomes were evaluated postoperatively by standard survey radiographs, morphology, histology and biomechanical testings. Healing processes appeared uncomplicated until week four where one bone fracture recurred due to external fixator failure. The results showed 56% and 48% cortical thickening, compared to the opposite site, in the fracture site and proximal and distal diaphyses respectively. This bone augmentative effect resulted in 264% increase in bending strength of the fracture site and 148% increase of the same value in the adjacent areas of diaphyses. In conclusion, IMCO, using CPC in tibia of sheep, is safe and biocompatible with bone physiology and healing. It possibly can carry the osteopromotive effect of the CPCs to provide a sustained source of bone augmentation throughout the diaphysis. Although the results must be considered preliminary, this method has possible advantages over conventional methods of bone fixation at least in bones with compromised quality (i.e. osteoporosis and bone cysts), where rigid metal implants may jeopardize eggshell cortices.
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of mesoporous silica coating surface treatments on push-out bond strength of zirconia posts. Zirconia posts (Cosmopost) were treated with vehicle (control), sandblasting plus silane application (SB+SI), a combination of sandblasting, mesoporous silica coating and silane application (SB+MSC+SI) (n=10/group). Specimens were cemented with RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, Germany) then horizontally segmented into three sections and subjected to a push-out test. Surface treatments showed significant higher bond strength than the control group, and SB+MSC+SI group presented higher values than SB+SI group (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in bond strength among root regions (P>0.05). We…conclude that the combination of mesoporous silica coating and silane application greatly enhance the push-out bond strength of zirconia posts.
Keywords: Zirconia, posts, mesoporous silica coating, push-out, root region
Abstract: Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when an ionic liquid/GOD-Polyhydroxy-C60 functional membrane was confined on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GCE showed a pair of redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of − 329±2 mV. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks ) was 1.43 s-1. The modified GCE response to glucose was linear in the range from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The detection limit was 1 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km app ) was 1.45 mM.
Keywords: Glucose oxidase, polyhydroxy-C60, ionic liquid, direct electrochemistry
Abstract: This paper studies parameters which affect the pore size diameter of a silicon membrane. Electrochemical etching is performed in characterise the parameter involved in this process. The parameter has been studied is volume ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol as an electrolyte aqueous for electrochemical etch. This electrolyte aqueous solution has been mixed between HF and ethanol with volume ratio 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1. As a result, the higher volume of HF in this electrolyte gives the smallest pore size diameter compared to the lower volume of HF. These samples have been dipped into HF and ethanol electrolyte…aqueous with supplied 25 mA/cm2 current density for 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The samples will inspect under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to execute the pore formations on silicon membrane surface.
Abstract: Significant progress has been achieved in the field of pH-sensitive drug delivery system in recent years. For layer-by-layer self-assembly nanocarriers, various pH values can induce the change of permeability and structural stability of the outer polyelectrolyte multi-layers, resulting in the release of the loaded drug. In the present study, carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-COOH) were prepared as reservoirs to hold model cargo, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB). Polycations, including 1, 4-butanediamine (BDA)-modified linear poly (glycerol methacrylate) (L-B) or BDA-modified star-shaped poly (glycerol methacrylate) (S5-B) and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA)-modified star-shaped poly (glycerol methacrylate) (S5-E), and polyanion, i.e. poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), are self-assembled…by electrostatic interactions as coating. The loading process of RhB was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and dynamic light scattering, and the release of RhB was controlled by changing the pH of phosphate buffer saline. The results showed that the loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of RhB were the highest for S5-B/PAA, which were 10.1% and 44.4%, respectively. In addition, the release of RhB was about 90% at pH 2.0 and 35% at pH 7.4, which was indicative of obvious pH-responsivity. The MSNs-COOH coated by S5-B/PAA proposed in the present study show potential applications in targeted drug delivery.
Abstract: Skin synthesis is important for the actual appearance of digital human models. However, it is difficult to design a general algorithm to efficiently produce high quality results. This paper proposes a parallel texture synthesis method for large scale skin of digital human models. Two major procedures are included in this method, a parallel matching procedure and a multi-pass optimizing procedure. Compared with other methods, this algorithm is easy to use, requires only a small size of skin image as input, and generates an arbitrary size of skin texture with high quality. As demonstrated by experiments, the effectiveness of this skin…texture synthesis method is confirmed.
Keywords: Texture synthesis, virtual human, parallel computing, L2 normal form
Abstract: Biological tissue impedance spectroscopy can provide rich physiological and pathological information by measuring the variation of the complex impedance of biological tissues under various frequencies of driven current. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) technique can measure the impedance spectroscopy of biological tissue in medical field. Before application, a key problem must be solved on how to generally distinguish normal tissues from the cancerous in terms of measurable EIT data. In this paper, the impedance spectroscopy characteristics of human lung tissue are studied. On the basis of the measured data of 109 lung cancer patients, Cole-Cole Circle radius (CCCR) and the complex…modulus are extracted. In terms of the two characteristics, 71.6% and 66.4% samples of cancerous and normal tissues can be correctly classified, respectively. Furthermore, two characteristics of the measured EIT data of each patient consist of a two-dimensional vector and all such vectors comprise a set of vectors. When classifying the vector set, the rate of correctly partitioning normal and cancerous tissues can be raised to 78.2%. The main factors to affect the classification results on normal and cancerous tissues are generally analyzed. The proposed method will play an important role in further working out an efficient and feasible diagnostic method for potential lung cancer patients, and provide theoretical basis and reference data for electrical impedance tomography technology in monitoring pulmonary function.
Keywords: Cancerous tissue, normal tissue, classification, electrical impedance spectroscopy
Abstract: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the exfoliated human deciduous incisor that can differentiate into a many cell types. In this study, we evaluated the effect of liquorice or angelica extracts on the hepatic differentiation potential of SHEDs cells. SHEDs cells cultured in medium containing liquorice extracts were analyzed for 1) changes in cellular morphology, 2) changes in hepatic gene expression, AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein) and ALB (Albumin), and 3) albumin secretion and urea synthesis activity. Our data show that the hepatic differentiation potential of SHEDs cells is enhanced by the presence of liquorice…or angelica extracts in the culture medium. Our findings present new therapeutic possibilities for liver damage repair.