Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 24, issue 6
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Superfine Particles (SP) of soluble eggshell membrane and medical grade polyurethane (MPU) blend nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning different blend ratios of SP/MPU suspensions for regeneration of the natural fiber-like structure of the eggshell membrane. The addition of SP had no obvious effect on the electrospinning process of MPU nanofibers, and the SP were randomly dispersed in the MPU nanofibers with no agglomeration of SP when the amount of SP was less than 20 wt%. Although the average diameter of the blend nanofibers is approximately 30% larger than that of the pure MPU nanofibers, they exhibit excellent tensile strength and…tensile resilience that are close to those for pure MPU nanofibers. In addition, the blend nanofibers become fully hydrophilic, and the water contact angle of the blend nanofibers decreases dramatically to 0°. Therefore, with the advantages of a collagen ingredient and good hydrophilicity, these blend nanofibers are suitable for applications such as facial masks, wound dressings, and pharmaceutical carrier materials.
Abstract: 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability, the use of 20(s)-Rg3 is limited. This study aimed to explore a method of preparing nano-sized 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 particle named 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3-loaded magnetic human serum albumin nanospheres (20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP) to change dosage form to improve its aqueous solubility and bioavailability. 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP were prepared by the desolvation-crosslinking method. The character of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP was detected. An antiproliferative effect and cell apoptosis rates of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP on human cervical cancer cells were determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. TEM analysis showed…that 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP were approximately spherical and uniform in size. Thermodynamic testing showed that the corresponding magnetic fluid of a specific concentration rosed to a steady temperature of 42–65○C. Iron content was approximately 3 mg/mL. Drug encapsulation efficiency was approximately 70%. The potential of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP combined with magnetic hyperthermia therapy to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis was much more prominent than that of the other groups. A new dosage form of 20(s)-Rg3 was prepared, which effectively induced apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro when combined with hyperthermia.
Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, human serum albumin nanospheres, 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3, cervical cancer cells
Abstract: Novel scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering were fabricated by co-electrospinning human-like collagen/chitosan and polylactic acid at room temperature and normal pressure. By studying the effects of composition and collecting distance on the morphology of electrospun meshes, we determined that the proper collecting distance and the concentration of the solution are the keys to the success of the co-electrospinning process. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and distribution of the fibrous diametrs was analyzed. Also, Hemocompatibility of the scaffolds were evaluated. The results indicated that scaffolds fabricated by co-electrospinning: (1) had a more biomimetic structure than polylactic acid,…as the fiber diameters approached the size of the extracellular matrix; (2) showed better hemocompatibility. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using two different solutions to construct a scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering by co-electrospinning.
Abstract: This study had investigated the possible toxicity of graphene oxide and its mechanisms on multiple myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 cells) using flow cytometry and a multifunctional microplate reader. RPMI 8226 cells were cultured with various concentrations of graphene oxide, then cell viability, malondialdehyde, glutathione and apoptosis were measured. We found that graphene oxide dose-dependently reduced the viability of human multiple myeloma RPMI 8226 cells. We also found that the intracellular levels of malondialdehyde increased, whereas the levels of glutathione decreased dose-dependently. There was no obvious change in the cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group. In summary, graphene oxide…is dose-dependently cytotoxic to cultured RPMI 8226 cells, and its toxicity is closely associated with increased oxidative stress.
Abstract: This study investigates quercetin-loaded zein nanoribbons, which were fabricated using different types of electrospinning processes. Using ethanol aqueous solutions as sheath fluids, the widths of quercetin-loaded zein nanoribbons (D, nm) could be manipulated simply through the adjustment of water contents(C) in the sheath fluids according to an equation of D=958−8.01C(r=0.9977), as indicated by the field emission scanning electron microscopic observations. X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that the quercetin presented in the zein nanoribbons in an amorphous state due to their high compability resulted from hydrogen bonds. In vitro dissolution tests verified that nanoribbons from…the coaxial process and single fluid process could provide drug sustained release profiles via a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism, and the former exhibited better performance than the later in terms of small initial burst effect and leveling-off release. Coaxial electrospinning with solvents can expand the capability of electrospinning in generating nanoproducts and provide a way for improving the nanoproducts' quality and functional performance.
Keywords: Zein, quercetin, nanoribbons, coaxial electrospinning, drug delivery
Abstract: The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring…inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.
Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharides graft polycaprolactone copolymer (PHCSO-g-PCL) has been synthesized via initiating the polymerization of e-caprolactone (CL) monomer through an amino group protection route using phthaloyl chitosan oligosaccharide (PHCSO) as intermediate. The grafting reaction was carried out in Pyridine at 120°C with the hydroxyl group of the chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO) as initiator and the tin 2-ethylhexanoate (Sn (Oct)2) as catalyst. The PHCSO-g-PCL nanoparticles with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) drug were prepared through the self-assembled approach in Dimethylformamide (DMF) organic solvents. PHCSO-PCL copolymer was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1 H NMR spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).…The physicochemical properties of the hydrophobized PHCSO-g-PCL nanoparticles were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results of DLS showed that the hydrodynamic diameters and particle size distribution with various concentrations of PHCSO-g-PCL nanoparticles were from 69.82 nm to 195.9 nm with a narrow polydispersity factor of 0.212 to 0.172. The results of DLS also showed that the hydrodynamic diameters and particle size distribution of PHCSO-g-PCL (5 mg/ml) nanoparticles without and with BSA drug (0.4 mg/ml) were from 168.44 nm to 200.7 nm. The polydispersity factor was from 0.119 to 0.159.
Abstract: In order to investigate biological properties of the dominant strain from the biological activated carbon (BAC) filter column, a novel, dominant iron-and-manganese removal strain, FM-2, was screened from BAC mature biological membrane. By phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparison, FM-2 was identified to be Citrobacter freundii. The experimental results indicated that Citrobacter sp. FM-2 could remove 83.6% Fe (II) and 64.9% Mn (II) after four days. Inoculum greatly influenced the iron-manganese removal performances. The appropriate inoculum concentration was 5%. The initial concentrations of Fe (II) and Mn (II) had little negative influence on its removal performance. When Fe…(II) and Mn (II) concentrations were 32.9~85.7 and 25.7~46.7 mg/L, respectively, the removal of Fe (II) and Mn (II) followed the first-order dynamical model with the velocity constants of 0.8528~0.9937/d and 0.3001~0.3179/d, respectively.
Abstract: In order to understand the relationship between sequences and biological functions of RGD-containing wild silkworm silk fibroin, it is important to purify the basic RGD-containing motif in large quantities. In this study, a gene monomer encoding RGD-contained motif GSGAGGRGDGGYGSGSS (-RGD-) derived from Antheraea pernyi (the same in Antheraea yamamai) was designed and cloned. (-RGD-)n in various degrees of polymerizations was obtained by gene monomer doubling-extension and expression. Two glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion proteins GST-(-RGD-)12 and GST-(-RGD-)24 were successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli (E. coli) BL21. The fusion proteins were isolated and purified by GST affinity chromatography, and the polypeptides (-RGD-)12 and (-RGD-)24…were cleaved from GST fusion proteins by thrombin digestion. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and amino acid composition analysis were performed to confirm the identity of the engineered polypeptides. Results indicated that this technology reliably obtained expected polypeptides (-RGD-)n for future research on structure and functions.
Abstract: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was employed in this study to design controllable drug release systems because of its non-toxic nature, swelling properties. New interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) of HPMC / tri-isocyanate crosslinked polyurethane (TCPU) could be prepared on the surfaces of IPN materials. To design “Novel Drug-carrying Matrix Systems”, incorporation of novel structure is important to the possible formation of drug-carrying spaces within the material, which was achieved by using Tris (6-isocyanatohexyl) isocyanurate with three soft hexyl arms in this study. A series of novel drug-carrying matrix systems prepared by crosslinking reaction could be candidates for an excellent and smart potential…material. When the polymeric networks were established on the surfaces of resulting materials, the developed hydrophilic interpenetrating polymeric structures of HPMC/ polyurethane could provide good wettability to the wound dressings, particularly for moisture healing application. The materials containing HPMC/polyurethane networks using 1% cross-linking agent showed a water uptake value of 5.1% after one hour, which has great potential for use as wound dressings for moisture healing. Furthermore, a new drug delivery system of hydrophilic IPN was successfully designed and established.
Keywords: Interpenetrating polymer network, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, drug delivery