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ISSN 0928-7329 (P)
Impact Factor 2023: 1.6
Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that local vibration stimulation therapy was effective in relieving fatigue, and the effects of different modes of vibration stimulation therapy were further investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of different vibration stimulation modes on relieving acute exercise fatigue based on the multiphysiological indicators such as heart rate variability (HRV), skin conductance level (SCL), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) subjective scale. METHODS: Sixty participants selected from the dragon boat team of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were divided into acupoint stimulation group (20 participants),…muscle stimulation group (20 participants), and control group (20 participants) by complete randomization. RESULTS: (1) RPE: both stimulation groups showed a significant increase compared to the control group. (2) Heart rate values: the difference between muscle stimulation group and control group was statistically significant; (3) SCL: the two stimulation groups had significantly higher and statistically significant differences in SCL (max) and SCL (mean) values compared to the control group; the muscle stimulation group had statistically significant differences in SCL (min) compared to the control group, and the acupoint stimulation group had statistically significant differences in SCL (v) compared to the control group; (4) HRV (hf): The difference between the acupoint stimulation group and the muscle stimulation group was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: (1) Both stimulation groups are part of vibration therapy, which can relieve sympathetic tension and regulate the vegetative nervous system’s relaxation effect. (2) The meridian-vessel theory may be related to the acupoint stimulation group. The low-level visceral regulation centers in the spinal nerve segment region, where the acupoints are located, trigger changes in autonomic tone and enhance parasympathetic nerve activity to relieve acute motor fatigue. (3) The muscle stimulation group may be due to the 30-Hz vibration frequency’s ability to raise muscle epidermal temperature, which increases blood flow and reflexively inhibits sympathetic excitation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Squats are one of the most widely used weight training methods worldwide, and the single most ubiquitous with regard to multi-joint resistance training. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate kinematic and kinetic changes in the lower extremities as a result of load increases during a back squat exercise, and to propose an association between back squats and lower extremity injuries. METHODS: Eight individuals with experience of back squat training were recruited. The subjects performed back squats with loads of 25%, 50%, 100%, and 125% of their body weight.…During the performance, the center of pressure (COP) sway; vertical center of mass (COM) velocity; joint moment; joint range of motion (ROM) of flexion/extension and adduction/abduction; and rotation of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were measured. RESULTS: The participants’ lower extremity joint ROM, vertical COM velocity, and COP variability did not change significantly with changes in weight loading. However, the moments applied to the lower extremity joints differed according to changes in barbell weight. The moments of plantar flexion (f = 54.362, p < 0.001), dorsiflexion (f = 8.475, p < 0.001), knee flexion (f = 12.013, p < 0.001), knee extension (f = 8.581, p < 0.001), hip flexion (f = 5.111, p < 0.001), and hip extension (f = 11.053, p < 0.001) increased in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension). There was also a significant increase in ankle eversion (f = 5.612, p = 0.004), hip abduction (f = 3.242, p = 0.037), and adduction (f = 5.846, p = 0.003) in the frontal plane (adduction/abduction). Among the moment variables in the transverse plane (rotation), there were significant differences in ankle internal rotation (f = 7.043, p = 0.001) and hip external rotation (f = 11.070, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As the barbell load increased, posture and performance were maintained, but rotational moments of the joints differed. It is expected that the joint directions that showed significant differences in this study are likely to be vulnerable to the risk of injury when an excessive load is applied to the body. Examples include the hip adduction moment, hip external rotation moment, and ankle internal rotation moment, and apply regardless of the increase in the rotational moments of joints from load increases.
Keywords: Back squat, load increase, joint moment, joint range of motion
Abstract: BACKGROUND: After high-intensity exercises, the body’s core temperature increases, affecting the body’s metabolism, increasing thermal stress and muscle fatigue. The most popular technique to maximize post-workout recovery is cryotherapy. However, the cooling effect may vary depending on the body part being cooled since body tissues do not process the same perfusion. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of hand cooling on human body functional recovery and exercise ability improvement by comparing normal rest and rest with hand cooling gloves after high-intensity exercise. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects participated in this study wherein they exercised…and used normal rest for one session and hand cooling rest for the next. Blood lactate concentration, heart rate recovery rate, VO 2 max measurement, and the degree of recovery of muscle strength, muscular endurance, and muscle fatigue were investigated in both groups to determine the efficacy of hand cooling gloves for postexercise recovery. RESULTS: When hands were cooled after exercise, blood lactate concentration and body temperature significantly decreased, and cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength, and muscular endurance significantly recovered. CONCLUSION: Using hand cooling gloves after exercise could attenuate core temperature elevation and improve postexercise recovery. It could also effectively improve athletic performance without using large-scale facilities.
Keywords: Muscle fatigue, cryotherapy, body temperature, muscle strength, athletic performance
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Golf courses are designed with uneven terrain. These factors are especially important when facing (slope), players need to straighten the posture of each part of the body in order to complete the swing on an inclined surface such as flat ground. Amateur players may be more likely to change the movement patterns of their shots due to uneven terrain. Therefore, it may be necessary to clarify the shot characteristics of amateur players and provide reference materials for technical improvement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of slope on amateur golfers’…swing kinematics by analyzing the variation of time variables, body center of gravity (COG), and shot parameters of amateur golfers’ swing at different ground slopes. METHODS: Six male amateur golfers participated in the experiment. The 7-iron was used for 5 swings each at three slopes: flat ground (FG, 0 ∘ ), ball below foot (BBF, + 10 ∘ ), and foot below ball (FBB, - 10 ∘ ). The OptiTrack-Motion capture system was used to collect kinematic data, and the three-dimensional motion data will be transmitted to Visual3D software for subsequent data analysis such as golf swing division and body COG changes. Shot parameters (carry, swing speed, ball speed, and smash factor) were recorded for each swing using the Caddie SC300 radar monitoring device. RESULTS: The results showed that there was no difference in the overall swing time and the time required for each interval at different slopes (p > 0.05) there is no significant difference in the change of the COG of the body in the forward and backward directions (p > 0.05). The three slopes of swing speed, ball speed, carry and smash factor were not significantly different (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The rhythm of the amateur golfer’s swing was not affected by the slope, but the slope restricts the movement of the body’s COG, which may affect the weight movement, and ultimately cause the performance parameters to not reach the level of the FG.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been widely used in the field of molecular biology because of its unique advantages. Anthrax is a widespread and long-standing infectious disease, which affects and restricts people’s work and life seriously. OBJECTIVE: The study goal is to develop a new method for the detection of anthrax. METHODS: A rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the detection of anthrax characteristic DNA was proposed by combing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The linear range of this…method is 100–2500 pmol/L and the limit of detection of 16.61 pmol/L. CONCLUSION: The proposed method has numerous advantages, including simplicity of operation, high sensitivity, and specificity, which provides a new idea for the detection of anthrax. Importantly, this methodology has good potential for the detection of other biological substances such as bacteria and viruses by changing the modification sequence on the nanoparticle probe.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Along with China entering an aging society, the percentage of people that over 60 will reach 34.9% in 2050, resulted in a significant increase in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a rehabilitation robotic walker for walking assistance during the daily life, and a control method for the motor relearning during the gait training. The walker consists of an omni-directional mobile platform (OMP) which ensures the walker can move on the ground, a body weight support system (BWS) which is capable of providing the desired unloading force, and a pelvic assist mechanism (PAM) to provide…the user with four degrees of freedom and avoid the rigid impact. The study goal is to gain a better understanding of the assist-as-needed control strategy during the gait training. METHODS: For the man-machine interaction control, the assist-as-needed control strategy is adopted to guide the users’ motions and improve the interaction experience. To build the force field in the three-dimensional space, the dynamics of the system is derived to increase the accuracy of force control. RESULTS: The simulation results show that the force field around the motion trajectory was generated in the three-dimensional space. In order to understand the force field, we designed the simulation on sagittal plane and the controller can generate the appropriate force field. The preliminary experiment results were consistent with the simulation results. CONCLUSION: Based on the mathematical simulation and the preliminary test, the results demonstrate that the proposed system can provide the guide force around the target trajectory, the accuracy of force control still remains to be improved.
Keywords: Dynamics, robotic walker, force control, assist-as-needed, stroke
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, people have paid more and more attention to the health hazards caused by O 3 exposure, which will become a major problem after fine particulate matter (PM). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ozone (O 3 ) exposure on blood glucose levels in rats under different concentrations and times. METHODS: Eighty rats were divided into control group and three ozone concentration groups. Each group was continuously exposed for 1d, 3d and, 6d, and exposed for 6 hours daily. After exposure, GTT, FBG,…and random blood glucose were measured. RESULTS: The FBG value increased significantly on the 6th day of 0.5 ppm and the 3rd and 6th days of 1.0 ppm exposure compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The random blood glucose value was significantly increased on the 3rd and 6th days of each exposure concentration (P < 0.05). When exposed to 1 ppm concentration, the 120 min GTT value of 1 d, 3 d and, 6 d was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: After acute O 3 exposure, the blood glucose level of rats was affected by the exposure concentration and time. The concentration of 0.1 ppm had no significant impact on FBG and random blood glucose, and O 3 with a concentration of 0.1 ppm and 0.5 ppm had no significant impact on values of GTT at 90 min, and 120 min.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A timely diagnosis of early gastric cancer (EGC) can greatly reduce the death rate of patients. However, the manual detection of EGC is a costly and low-accuracy task. The artificial intelligence (AI) method based on deep learning is considered as a potential method to detect EGC. AI methods have outperformed endoscopists in EGC detection, especially with the use of the different region convolutional neural network (RCNN) models recently reported. However, no studies compared the performances of different RCNN series models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the performances of different RCNN series models for EGC.…METHODS: Three typical RCNN models were used to detect gastric cancer using 3659 gastroscopic images, including 1434 images of EGC: Faster RCNN, Cascade RCNN, and Mask RCNN. RESULTS: The models were evaluated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, recall, and AP. Fast RCNN, Cascade RCNN, and Mask RCNN had similar accuracy (0.935, 0.938, and 0.935). The specificity of Cascade RCNN was 0.946, which was slightly higher than 0.908 for Faster RCNN and 0.908 for Mask RCNN. CONCLUSION: Faster RCNN and Mask RCNN place more emphasis on positive detection, and Cascade RCNN places more emphasis on negative detection. These methods based on deep learning were conducive to helping in early cancer diagnosis using endoscopic images.
Keywords: Deep learning, early gastric cancer, gastroscopic images, RCNN
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sinus floor elevation and immediate dental implantation are commonly performed to treat dentition defects in elderly patients. Targeted cognitive behavioral interventions (CBI) during the perioperative period can reduce pain and anxiety as well as improve sleep quality. This can lead to improvements in patient cooperation during follow-up treatment and enhance the overall efficacy of the surgery. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention method on perioperative pain, anxiety, and sleep quality in elderly patients undergoing sinus floor elevation and immediate dental implantation. METHODS: Forty patients who…required the treatment at the Stomatology Clinic in our hospital between December 2018 and December 2022 were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (n = 20), which received conventional treatment and care during the perioperative period, and an intervention group (n = 20), which received comprehensive behavioral intervention in addition to the conventional treatment and care during the perioperative period. The perioperative anxiety, pain, and sleep quality of the patients in both groups were evaluated. Anxiety was assessed using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in SAS and PSQI were observed between the two groups at the initial visit; the values were significantly higher than those measured postoperatively. The SAS scores and PSQI of patients on days 0 and 7 post-surgery in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Perioperative cognitive behavioral intervention can effectively improve anxiety, postoperative pain and sleep quality in elderly patients who have undergone sinus floor elevation and immediate dental implantation, thereby reducing the incidence of complications.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic electromyographic (EMGdi) is a helpful method to reflect the respiratory center’s activity visually. However, the electrocardiogram (ECG) severely affected its weakness, limiting its use. OBJECTIVE: To remove the ECG artifact from the EMGdi, we designed a Morphological ECG subtraction method (MES) based on three steps: 1) ECG localization, 2) morphological tracking, and 3) ECG subtractor. METHODS: We evaluated the MES method against the wavelet-based dual-threshold and stationary wavelet filters using visual and frequency-domain characteristics (median frequency and power ratio). RESULTS: The results show that the MES method can…preserve the features of the original diaphragm signal for both surface diaphragm signal (SEMGdi) and clinical collection of diaphragm signal (EMGdi_clinic), and it is more effective than the wavelet-based dual-threshold and stationary wavelet filtering methods. CONCLUSION: The MES method is more effective than other methods. This technique may improve respiratory monitoring and assisted ventilation in patients with respiratory diseases.