Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 68, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effect of lumbar sympathectomy for the treatment of lower limb ischemia remains a matter of controversy. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lumbar sympathectomy, after which Evans blue dye was injected into the hind plantar skin. Extravasation of dye was measured and compared with rats undergoing sham operation. Hind plantar skin was processed for HE staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. RESULTS: In sympathectomized rats, blue stained areas in hind plantar skin and concentrations of Evans blue were significantly less than that of sham sympathectomy (control) rats, both 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery.…Expression of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, bradykinin B2 receptor, and adenosine triphosphate were not significantly different between the sympathectomized and control groups. Adenosine receptor A2a expression was significantly reduced in the sympathectomized group both 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Vascular permeability in the hind plantar skin of rats decreases following lumbar sympathectomy, possibly via reduced expression of adenosine receptor A2a.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Duplex ultrasound is the first choice in diagnostics and surveillance of stenoses of the internal carotid arteries before and even after surgery. Therefore, the quality of duplex ultrasound is crucial to investigate these vascular pathologies. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was the evaluation whether different surgical techniques affect the postoperative quality of duplex ultrasound. METHODS: In a time period from January to May 2015 duplex ultrasound of the cervical vessels was performed in 75 patients after unilateral endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery at our department between 2006 and 2012. Thereby, the non-operated contralateral side…served as a control. Study groups were defined by the surgical techniques of eversion- or thrombendarterectomy with patch plasty using different patch materials and/or a haemostatic sealant. Duplex ultrasound analysis included acoustic impedance, extinction of ultrasound, thickness of skin and individual anatomic aspects of the patients. RESULTS: Carotid endarterectomy itself reduced intravascular grey levels, skin thickness and increased extinction of duplex ultrasound when compared to the non-operated side of the neck. In contrast, neither the kind of chosen operative technique nor the use of different patch materials or the application of a haemostatic sealant showed an effect in this regards. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas carotid endarterectomy per se worsens the quality of postoperative duplex ultrasound, the different analysed surgical techniques as well as used patches and the application of a haemostatic sealant can be assumed to be equal regarding the quality of postoperative ultrasound.
Abstract: The hemorheological profile in multiple myeloma (MM) has been extensively studied. Our investigation regarded the behavior of whole-blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte deformability in MM. We enrolled 24 MM patients; 13 of them had been recently diagnosed and were at the initial stage of therapy, 6 were on consolidation/conservation therapy and 5 had achieved a complete remission. On fasting venous blood we evaluated whole-blood and plasma viscosity at high and low shear rates, haematocrit, the ratios between whole-blood viscosity (at high and low shear rate) and haematocrit×100, the ratio between plasma viscosity at low and high shear rate and…the erythrocyte deformability examined by using laser diffractometry and expressed as elongation index. A significant increase in plasma viscosity at low shear rate and a marked decrease in haematocrit were observed in MM patients compared with normal controls. Also the ratio between the high shear rate whole-blood viscosity and haematocrit ×100 and the ratio between the low and high shear rate plasma viscosity were significantly increased in MM patients. A significant decrease in erythrocyte deformability, especially at low shear stresses, was found. We discuss some hypotheses that might explain the behavior of red blood cell deformability in MM, considering that its impairment, in addition to the increase of plasma viscosity, can alter the microcirculatory flow in these patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening situation and its pathomechanism is not fully understood yet. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early micro-rheological, microcirculatory and morphological consequences of intestinal I/R in a rat model. METHODS: CD rats were anesthetized and subjected to Control (n = 7) or I/R (n = 7) groups. Left femoral artery cannulation and median laparotomy were performed. In the I/R group the superior mesenteric artery was clamped for 30 minutes. Blood samples were taken before (Base) and after the ischemia, at the 30th, 60th and 120th minutes of the reperfusion (R-30, R-60, R-120). Hematological…parameters, erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined. On the jejunum, the liver and the right kidney laser Doppler flowmetry tests were completed. At the end of experiment histological samples were taken. RESULTS: Hematocrit, leukocyte and platelet counts increased during the reperfusion. Erythrocyte deformability worsened versus Control. All erythrocyte aggregation index values of I/R group increased gradually. Intestinal microcirculatory blood flux units (BFU) did not recover completely after ischemia, at R-30 liver BFU values were lower, and kidney values decreased by R-120. Histology showed signs of I/R injury. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-rheological parameters may show early and significant deterioration during the reperfusion that might contribute further to microcirculatory alterations.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blood viscosity (BV) might influence glucose delivery to peripheral tissues and play an important role in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. However, the exact relationship between BV and insulin resistance is not yet clear. OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the acute reduction in BV on insulin resistance, in healthy male subjects. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male blood donors have been studied before and 48 hours after blood donation. Blood and plasma viscosity have been measured at 37°C with a cone-plate viscometer. Insulin resistance has been evaluated by euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp…in eight subjects, and by iHOMA2 Index in further seven subjects. RESULTS: Blood viscosity was markedly reduced after blood donation (BV225 (cP) 4.53 ± 0.59 vs. 4.18 ± 0.31, p < 0.05). Insulin resistance was unchanged: MFFM clamp: 5.6 ± 4.5vs. 4.4 ± 2.2 and iHOMA2 Index 1.2 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.5, before vs. after respectively, p = NS. Blood pressure and lipids were unchanged after blood donation. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that acute reduction of BV in healthy male subjects does not change the insulin resistance, measured using both euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp and iHOMA2 Index. Further intervention studies are needed to assess the effect that the reduction in BV can have in subjects with insulin resistance.
Abstract: There is scarcity of information about the hemorheological pattern in subjects with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS). This preliminary research is focused on the behaviour of whole-blood and plasma viscosity, haematocrit and erythrocyte deformability in the above clinical condition. We enrolled 21 MGUS subjects (10 women and 11 men; mean age 66.4 ± 11.6 years). In fasting venous blood we examined whole-blood and plasma viscosity at high and low shear rates, haematocrit, the ratios between whole-blood viscosity (at high and low shear rate) and haematocrit × 100, the ratio between plasma viscosity at low and high shear rate, and…the erythrocyte deformability expressed as elongation index. By comparing normal controls to MGUS subjects a significant increase in whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and in plasma viscosity at low shear rate were observed. In MGUS subjects the ratios between the high and low shear rate blood viscosity and haematocrit × 100, as well as the ratio between the low and high shear rate plasma viscosity were significantly higher. In MGUS subjects a marked decrease in erythrocyte deformability was also observed. The alteration of the hemorheological profile found in these subjects might be involved in the pathogenesis of thromboembolic events, which occur with a high frequency in MGUS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The optimal surgical approach to reconnecting bowel ends safely after resection is of great importance. OBJECTIVES: This project is focused on assessment of the perianastomotic microcirculation quality in the short postoperative period when using three different anastomosis techniques in experimental animal. METHODS: The experimental study involved 27 young female domestic pigs divided into three subgroups of 9 animals according to each surgical method of anastomosis construction in the sigmoid colon region: by manual suture, by stapler, or by gluing. Blood microcirculation in the anastomosis region was monitored using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). Anastomosis healing was…evaluated by macroscopic and histological examination. RESULTS: Evaluation of the microcirculation in the anastomosis region showed the smallest decrease in perfusion values in animals reconstructed by suturing (Δ= –38.01%). A significantly more profound drop was observed postoperatively after stapling or gluing (Δ= –52.42% and Δ= –59.53%, respectively). All performed anastomoses healed without any signs of tissue and function pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Sewing, stapling, and gluing techniques for bowel anastomosis each have a different effect on regional microcirculation during 120 min. postoperatively. Nevertheless, the final results of anastomosis healing were found without of any pathology in all experimental animals managed by above mentioned anastomotic techniques.
Keywords: Microcirculation, bowel anastomosis, experimental surgery
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the severity of renal pathology in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US). METHODS: 275 patients with CKD who were proven by renal biopsy and 30 healthy adults were examined using conventional US and contrast-enhanced US. Ultrasonic parameters included renal length, cortical thickness, rise time (RT), peak intensity (PI), area under the time-intensity curve (AUC), wash-in slope (WIS) and time to peak (TTP). Based on pathological scores, CKD patients were classified into mild, and moderate to severe CKD groups. The logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used.…RESULTS: PI and AUC differed significantly among the controls, mild and moderate to severe CKD groups (P < 0.05). There was significant difference in PI among the different pathology types (P < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that PI was associated independently with the severity of renal pathology in patients with CKD (P < 0.05). PI less than 13.87 dB had a certain diagnostic ability, and the sensitivity and specificity were 72.5% and 64.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced US may be useful for noninvasive assessment of the severity of renal pathology. PI may be potentially valuable for guiding therapy and follow-up in patients with CKD.
Abstract: There is increasing evidence in the literature that preoperative treatment with levosimendan optimizes cardiopulmonary haemodynamics in patients scheduled for the implantation of a Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD). The present case report describes changes in sublingual microcirculation using incident dark field video microscopy in a patient, who received a continuous infusion of 0.5 mg/h levosimendan 12 h before LVAD implantation. Despite no evident macrohaemodynamic or metabolic changes, there was a dramatic reduction in total vessel density and perfused vessel density suggesting a deterioration of microcirculation according to the consensus conference criteria in vessels smaller than 20 μm in diameter. However, the microcirculation…of all visible vessels (regardless of diameter) was maintained. This potential misinterpretation is explained by a levosimedan-induced vasodilation and the subsequent reduction of the percentage of vessels with a diameter smaller than 20 μm. Physicians should carefully consider this pitfall of applying the consensus conference criteria in vasodilator-treated patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that ATP activates NOS enzymes and causes increased NO production in several cell types. Although RBC known to possesses eNOS enzyme activity, it has not been investigated whether RBC eNOS could be induced by extracellular ATP. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate extracellular ATP mediated eNOS activation and NO production in RBC. METHODS: RBC packed were isolated from healthy volunteers and re-suspended in Hepes solution at a hematocrit of 0.01 l/l. Intracellular NO and Ca+2 levels and eNOS activation measured by flow cytometry in response…to P2X receptor agonist, Bz-ATP, in the absence and presence of NOS, P2 receptors and PI3K inhibitors. RESULTS: P2X receptor agonist Bz-ATP found to increase intracellular NO, Ca+2 and serine 1177 phosphorylated eNOS levels and these responses have shown to be suppressed by NOS enzyme, P2 receptors and PI3K inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study clearly demonstrated extracellular ATP induced NO generation in RBC through intracellular Ca+2 and PI3K/Akt pathways. The mechanism we described here might be important at basal conditions and also in conditions with increased ATP release.
Keywords: Red blood cells, ATP, nitric oxide, purinergic receptors