Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 34, issue 1-2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: This review focused on a few methodologies which the author, with a background of chemical engineering, has developed in the physiological studies of microcirculation. (1) Fluorescent tracers to visualize mass transfer and hemodynamics: By means of a high sensitive SIT camera equipped in an intravital microscope system, dynamic processes of the permeation of a fluorescent dye from the microvessels through the extravascular space to lymphatics was made to be visualized. Dynamic behaviors of the formed elements were also quantitatively analyzed by the selective fluorescent labeling technique. (2) The dye/light method to induce platelet thrombus in vivo: Intravascular platelet aggregation and…subsequent thrombus formation leading to the complete occlusion of the vessels were produced in the microvasculature by the irradiation of filtered light in combination with the intravascular administration of sodium fluorescein. This method enables quantitative evaluation of thrombus formation process in terms of thrombus formation times. Effects of hemodynamic parameters on thrombogenesis in vivo were quantitatively analyzed. (3) Establishment of peritoneal disseminated tumor model: Colon tumor cells (RCN-9) were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of male Fischer rats, and the intravital microscopic observation of angiogenic vascular growth accompanying tumor growth was made possible. Dynamic behavior of leukocytes in the microcirculation of solid tumor tissue was visualized using a fluorescent labeling technique combined with the use of a real-time confocal laser-scanning microscope.
Abstract: This paper reviews work on microvascular remodeling that has been done over the past years in our lab. It is not our purpose to fully cover the field; rather we explain our progress in a more or less chronological order. We address physiological and pathological remodeling in resistance vessels, the biomechanics of the vascular wall and the factors that determine vascular caliber. Subsequently, the intimate link between maintained vascular tone and inward remodeling is discussed, and we highlight our view that tone and remodeling form hallmarks in a continuous process of vascular adaptation. Finally, the role of transglutaminases in remodeling…is described.
Abstract: Despite numerous reports on the regulation of cerebral arterial blood flow, little work has been done on that of the capillary and venous system. We have examined capillo-venous blood flow in the rat intraparenchymal cerebral cortex, employing a high-speed video confocal fluorescence microscope and our own software (KEIOIS-2) to track individual RBCs and to document velocity changes in single capillaries and veins. We found temporal and spatial heterogeneous changes in capillary RBC density (hematocrit), RBC recruitment, oscillation of capillary flow or vasomotion, and capillary density unrelated to arteriolar diametric changes. In veins, blood flow was also quite variable in time…and space, and at a high frame rate venous blood per se was observed as a moving column of amorphous RBC aggregates with irregular edges; we believe this is the first report of such an observation under physiological conditions. The formation of such intravascular RBC aggregates would enforce slowing of blood flow and vice versa: RBC aggregation was in turn entirely flow-dependent. In rapid venous flow, RBCs appeared as a straight gathering of individually separated and dispersed cells. At capillo-venous junctions, an “RBC pouring” process appeared to occur, with RBCs either being sucked up from the capillary, merging, or being held back in the capillary. Changes in venous blood viscosity due to RBC aggregation are likely to be involved in this process. These findings suggest that the capillo-venous junction somehow participates in the regulation of appropriate tissue capillary flow in toto.
Abstract: Arterioles typically exist in a state of partial constriction that is related to the level of intraluminal pressure. This vasomotor response is a function of the vascular smooth muscle and occurs independently of neurohumoral and endothelial input. The physiological relevance of myogenic constriction relates to the setting of peripheral resistance, provision of a level of tone that vasodilators can access, and a contribution to control of capillary pressure. Despite its importance in the regulation of microvascular haemodynamics the exact cellular mechanisms linking intraluminal pressure to myogenic constriction remain uncertain. Studies using isolated, cannulated arteriole techniques, and freshly dispersed smooth muscle…cells, have shown that increased intraluminal pressure/cell stretch leads to smooth muscle cell membrane depolarisation, the opening of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), Ca2+ -dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase and actomyosin-based contraction. Questions remain as to how the initial stimulus is detected and how these events lead to membrane depolarisation. A candidate pathway for the mechanosensory events involves the link between extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface integrins and the subsequent activation of intracellular signalling events. Membrane depolarisation may occur through the involvement of various ion channels, including non-selective cation channels (possibly themselves mechanosensitive) that predominantly pass Na+ from the extracellular space. Evidence suggests that this may involve TRP-like channels, possibly TRPM4 or TRPC6 isoforms that are modulated by diacylglycerol and protein kinase C. In addition, the exact roles played by various Ca2+ pools, including those occurring in spatially-restricted domains, and Ca2+ sensitisation, remain uncertain despite the clearly important role of VGCC. Similarly, while a change in intraluminal pressure is associated with the generation of a number of second messengers and the activation of various protein kinases, their roles in myogenic contraction versus long-term adaptive responses, such as tissue remodelling, are still to be defined.
Abstract: Asian traditional medicine (ATM) (herbal medicine, acupuncture or moxibution) has gained some popularity among communities in Asia. Some therapies employed in ATM have been verified using modern techniques, but the significance of ATM has still remained unclear. This symposium was focused on experimental data obtained recently.
Keywords: Asian Traditional Medicine (ATM), herbal medicine, microcirculation
Abstract: Panax notoginseng is the root of the Chinese traditional herb, Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the leukocyte adhesion and the expression of adhesion molecules in rat mesentery venules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. These were divided into control, LPS (perfused with lipopolysaccharide), and PNS group (perfused with PNS). The mesenteric microcirculation was observed under a videomicroscope. The number of adherent leukocytes, which attached to the vascular wall during more than 10 seconds, was counted along single venules (30–50 μm in diameter, 200 μm…in length). The expression of adhesion molecules was examined using flow-cytometry in blood which was taken from the abdominal aorta and incubated with FITC-labeled CD11b (or CD18) antibodies. The results showed that different changes in the leukocyte adhesion and the expression of adhesion molecules among three groups. In LPS group, the leukocyte adhesion increased significantly after 20 minutes during the observation time, while it was reduced markedly in PNS group. The expression of CD11b and CD18 on the neutrophils was induced in LPS group, while it was reduced significantly in PNS group. It was suggested that PNS could reduce leukocyte adhesion in venules under the inhibitory effect on the expression of adhesion molecules (CD11b and CD18) on neutrophils.
Abstract: Anti-angiogenic activity of curcumin and effects of curcumin on angiogenic biomarkers, cycloxygenase (COX)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were investigated. One day after hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HepG2) cells (30 μl of 2×106 cells) were inoculated onto the upper layer of the skin-fold chamber (HepG2-group, n=15), curcumin solutions of 300 and 3000 mg/kg BW were daily oral fed to HepG2-Cur-300 and HepG2-Cur-3000 groups (n=30), respectively. Intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy was performed to monitor neocapillaries in the tumor on days 3, 7 and 14 post-tumor-inoculation, using RITC-dextran (0.1 ml of 0.5% injected intravenously). The tumor neocapillary density (NCD) was evaluated…in correlation with the tumor area, using a digital image analysis. The results demonstrated that the NCD of HepG2-groups were significantly increased on day 7 and 14, compared to the aged-matched Sham-groups (p<0.001). The increased NCD on day 7 and 14 were attenuated significantly by daily treatment of curcumin solution (3000 mg/kg BW).The curcumin treatment reduced the tumor-induced over-expression of COX-2 and serum VEGF in HepG2 groups significantly (p<0.001), indicating that curcumin could inhibit tumor angiogenesis. This mechanism might be mediated through reduction of angiogenic biomarkers, COX-2 and VEGF.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate effects of Yahom on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in rats using fluorescence videomicroscopy. Male Wistar Furth rats weighing 200–250 g were used, and divided into three groups: experimental I, II and control groups. The experimental I and II groups received single oral administration of Yahom 2 and 4 g/kg.bw, and topical application of Yahom on the pial cerebral cortex, respectively, while the control group received oral administration of 1 ml of 5% Tween. The rCBF was monitored using laser Doppler flowmetry at different periods (5–120 minutes) after the administration of Yahom or…Tween. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured through a femoral artery. The cerebral microcirculation was observed and recorded under an intravital fluorescence videomicroscopic system. The arteriolar diameter was measured based on the recorded videomicroscopic images. The MAP and rCBF increased after the oral administration of Yahom, while they did not alter in the control group. The maximum responses of MAP and rCBF were approximately 16% and 33% at 45 min and 30 min after the administration of Yahom 4 g/kg.bw, respectively. The topical application of Yahom induced vasodilation in the pial microvessels. In conclusion, single oral administration of Yahom may increase the regional cerebral blood flow under the effect of cerebral microvascular vasodilation.
Abstract: Myakuryu (MR) is a newly developed herbal medicine composing Crataegue oinnatifida bge (COB), Panax notoginseng (PN) and Ginkyo biloba (GB). To examine the effectiveness of MR, we investigated its effects on rat mesenteric microcirculatory injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The mesenteric microcirculation of ileocecal portion of a male Wistar rat was observed through an inverted-type intravital microscope assisted with a charge-coupled devise (CCD) camera. Mesenteric I/R was conducted by a ligation of the mesenteric artery and vein (10 min) and subsequent release of the occlusion. We measured venular diameter, the number of adherent leukocytes, dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) fluorescence as an…indicator of oxidative stress and mast cell degranulation, with or without MR extract (0.4 g/kg b.w.) via an orogastric tube 1hr before I/R. The diameters of the observed mesenteric venules were not changed after the mesenteric I/R. MR had no effect on venular diameter. The leukocytes adhering to the post-capillary venular walls started just after reperfusion, and increased thereafter. The increased number of adherent leukocytes was significantly reduced by treatment with MR. DHR fluorescence ratio was significantly increased along the venular wall. MR attenuated the increased oxidation. The mesenteric I/R induced mast cell degranulation. The increase in mast cell degranulation was inhibited by MR. In conclusion, oral administration of MR attenuates I/R-induced microvascular damages in rat mesentery. MR has a therapeutic potential for prevention of I/R-related microvascular injury.