Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 23, issue 2,3,4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: New viscometers for blood viscometry, improved intravital microscope, and related instruments, which are capable of measuring important rheological factors for microcirculatory research were developed and applied for hemorheological studies. As the results, four major determinants of the suspension viscosity were determined and the role of suspension viscosity of the blood as a function of microcirculatory flow was clarified. Meanwhile, the use of fluorescence microscopy and digitized video microscopic techniques has allowed the investigation of the structure and function of cells at the level of the single intact living cell. In addition, the developments and applications of laser confocal microscopy…provided for not only three‐dimensional image construction, but also four‐dimensional image construction. In recent years, the dramatic advances in molecular biology and instrumental technology have made it possible to probe the structural and functional bases of cellular events at the molecular level. The ultimate understanding of biorheological behavior is dependent upon a molecular basis. In the future, the use of molecular biological techniques and nanotechnology (e.g., laser tweezers, atomic force microscopy and near‐field microscopy, etc.) will allow the understanding of normal and abnormal rheological properties of cells, tissues, organs, and systems at the molecular level, and will contribute to progress in biomedical science.
Abstract: This article reviews our recent studies on the local regulation of hepatic microcirculation with special reference to the inlet sphincter‐like structures, the roles of sinusoidal endothelial cells and the mechanism of dynamic changes in the sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae (SEF) as well as in the terminal portal venules and the terminal hepatic arterioles induced by the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin (ET)‐1. There are two types of sphincter‐like structures at the entering sites of hepatic sinusoids. One is located at the junction between the terminal portal venule and the sinusoid, and is characterized by the large endothelial cells surrounded with Ito cells (hepatic…stellate cells: HSCs). The other is located at the junction between the terminal hepatic arteriole and the sinusoid, and corresponds to the precapillary sphincter since our enzymohistochemical demonstration of arterial capillaries in close association with the sinusoids combined with intravital microscopy has revealed that the terminal hepatic arteriole directly terminates in the sinusoid. It is essential for the local control of hepatic sinusoidal blood flow that the dynamic contracting and relaxing changes not only in these inlet sphincter‐like structures but also in the SEF correspond with those of the HSCs, both of which are mediated by the sinusoidal endothelium‐derived vasoconstrictor endothelins (ETs) and vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). The contractility of the SEF and HSCs depends on the intracellular Ca++ –calmodulin–actomyosin system.
Abstract: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasodilator peptide first identified in pheochromocytoma tissue, but endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells actively secrete AM in addition to expressing AM receptors. AM dilates blood vessels through its direct action on the smooth muscle and the endothelial cell‐mediated nitric oxide pathway. We have further demonstrated that AM is synthesized and secreted from macrophages, fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes and many other types of cells. AM secretion from these cells as well as the vascular wall cells are commonly stimulated with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharide. AM receptor is also widely distributed, and AM is shown to regulate production…of inflammatory cytokines and cell growth. Based on these data, AM is deduced to be a multi‐functional peptide participating in the regulation of vascular tone, inflammation and other physiologic events of the vasculature.
Abstract: There have been developed several types of experimental techniques for evaluation of renal microcirculation. Although each methodology possesses excellent and unique characteristics, it requires substantial artificial manipulation that might alter the renal microvascular responsiveness. To circumvent such limitations of previous ex vivo or in vitro approaches to glomerular microcirculation, we have developed a pencil lens probe CCD intravital videomicroscopic system that allows us to evaluate both systemic hemodynamics and renal microcirculation. Furthermore, real time images of afferent and efferent arterioles as well as glomeruli can be continuously assessed, which would facilitate the functional characterization of these microvessels in vivo. Finally,…the tapered nature of the CCD probe of this videomicroscopy may allow direct observation of the renal microvasculature in small animals. In conclusion, this novel technique is a valuable tool for unveiling the in vivo, in situ, and intact renal microvascular behavior, and may provide further approaches to the understanding of renal microcirculation.
Abstract: The dysfunction of rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVEC) induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was investigated in cell culture. The TNFα concentrations added into culture were 1000–5000 u/ml. The study was done at different steps as follows: (1) cell proliferation dynamic, (2) coagulation and anti‐coagulation, (3) adhesive molecule, (4) nitric oxide (NO), (5) oncogens, and (6) apoptosis. It was concluded that attention should be paid to the metabolic disorder and dysfunction of RPMVEC induced by TNFα which can not be found easily according to the morphological changes. This might be the common pathway in the pathogenesis of…some diseases related to TNFα.
Abstract: Many researches show that traditional Indonesian diet is good for physical health. The present study examines the antioxidative, anti‐inflammatory and antithrombotic potentials of aqueous extract of tempe (fermented soya‐beans) and Curcuma domestica in an experimental photochemical thrombogenesis model using rat femoral artery. A total of 15 male Wistar rats weighing 250 g were used, and divided into three groups: control (group‐1, n=5), animals, treated orally with 0.25 ml aqueous extracts of 50 g tempe (fermented soybean cake) once daily for 7 consecutive days (group‐2, n=5) and animals treated orally with 0.25 ml aqueous extracts of 10 g roots of Curcuma…domestica once daily for 5 consecutive days (group‐3, n=5). All animals were anesthetized, and Sn‐pyrophosphate and Tc99m solutions were injected intravenously for in vivo red cell radioactive labeling. Femoral arterial occlusion was observed, using a gamma camera. Induction of femoral arterial thrombosis was effected following an endothelial injury by free radicals produced by green light‐irradiated Rose Bengal (10 mg/kg). The results showed that in the control group arterial total flow occlusion was seen in 15 min of irradiation. The results of MDA absorbency was 0.3700±1.7 nmol/ml in control group‐1, 0.0520±0.025 in group‐2 (significant p<0.05 in comparison to control group) and 0.2780±0.027 in group‐3 (non‐significant). Interleukin‐1alpha plasma level was 14.44±2.3 in control group‐1, 8.93±2.4 in group‐2 (significant p<0.05), and 6.21±2.5 in group‐3 (significant p<0.05). Plasma thromboxane B2 plasma level was 20.31±2.4 in control group‐1, 14.32±2.2 in group‐2 (significant p<0.05), and 19.41±2.1 in group‐3 (significant). This study suggests the potential antioxidative, anti‐inflammatory and antithrombotic effect that the dietary aqueous extracts has in rat femoral artery.
Abstract: Asian tradition medicine (ATM), such as herbal medicine and acupuncture, has been widely used in the treatment of diseases, but the effects still remain unclear at the level of the microcirculation. Up to now, a variety of approaches have been made to comprehensively evaluate the significance of ATM. Microcirculatory studies of ATM are introduced with reference to the history of international workshops in Asia.
Keywords: Traditional medicine, herbal medicine, acupuncture, Asia
Abstract: Drugs with the efficacy of modifying rheological properties of blood, blood vessels and their interactions are denoted by “hemorheologicals”. Drugs of anti‐hyperviscosemia, anti‐coagulants, anti‐platelet drugs, anti‐thrombotics, vasodilators, endothelial cell protectors and anti‐arthrosclerosis should be considered as hemorheologicals due to the actions in keeping blood fludity and in maintaining normal vascular functions. The studies in hemorheology indicate that a tendency of hyperviscosity, hypercoagulation and being prone to thrombosis is prevalent in the elderly. Hemorheologicals are importance for and aging and life‐threatening diseases. Blood stasis syndrome is a common pathological syndrome in the elderly. In traditional Chinese medicine, the treatment for the…syndrome is by herbs which activates blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The herbs have the efficacy of improving hemorheological events. Therefore, the herbs are the source for developing hemorheologicals. Ligustrazine isolated from Chuangxiong is an example. It showed significant inhibition on shear induced platelet aggregation and on platelet intracellular calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope.