Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 23, issue 2,3,4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: This paper aimed to evaluate the significance of nitric oxide (NO) in the physiology of the penis. Pudendal arteries and penile cavernous tissue of the Macaca nemestrina pertaining to NO were examined in the view of molecular biology and physiology. The results showed that potential resources of NO were in the neuron, sinusoidal endothelium and corporal smooth muscle cells of the penis. NO exerted a host of functional roles by binding with specific molecular targets. It was concluded that NO exerts a significant role in physiology, especially in the microcirculation of the penis, as the principal mediator of erectile function.
Abstract: This paper investigated the mechanism for the rheological dysfunction of red blood cell (RBC) caused by free radicals. Normal RBCs were collected from healthy volunteers. Fenton system was added to the RBCs and allowed to react for 30 minutes in vitro. The RBC membrane molecules were damaged due to the free radicals reaction. It was found that: (1) The protein configurations changed such as the ratio decreasing in α‐helix and increasing in both of β‐sheet and coiled‐coil; (2) –P=O/–P–O chemical group ratio in phospholipids increases; (3) the molecular rotational correlation times of proteins and lipids were extremely elevated; (4) the…membrane shear elastic modulus was significantly enhanced. The present results support that the chemical structure changes led by free radicals are ultimately responsible for the reduction in molecular fluidity of RBC membrane.
Abstract: The present study investigated microcirculatory characteristics of the cerebral neovasculature induced in mice, using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). The nylon‐mesh sandwich (collagen gel/growth factor in bovine serum albumin embedded in between two nylon‐mesh pieces) was used to induce angiogenesis. After different days of incubation, the observations of neocapillaries were done on the upper surface of the nylon‐mesh, using fluorescence video‐microscopy. The neocapillary diameter, red cell velocity, and the neocapillary density were evaluated based on the video‐image. The neocapillaries were visible on the upper surface of the mesh on the 6th day after the…incubation, and red cells started to flow from the day 7. The neocapillary red cell velocity increased with days after incubation, but its level was less than that of the pre‐existing capillaries. The neocapillary diameter decreased as the neocapillaries got matured. The neocapillary density was dependent on the doses of bFGF and PDGF. The neocapillary diameter did not alter with the higher concentration as well as with different growth factors. Both bFGF and PDGF showed an increase in red cell velocity at high concentration.
Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is most promising in therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic vascular disease. This paper aimed to study VEGF gene therapy for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. The glial cell was chosen as the target cell for gene transfer, and the expression of VEGF was studied in vitro. VEGF plasmid/liposome complexes were constructed by mixing VEGF plasmid with liposome, and then cultured C6 glioma cells were transfected with these complexes by lipofectamine method. As control, the same kind of cells were exposed to liposome only. Immunohistochemistry was performed to both groups at 24, 48 and 72 hours after…transfection. The transfected cells expressed VEGF significantly higher than the control. The present result demonstrated the feasibility of choosing the glial cell as the target cell for VEGF gene transfer, and found the rationale for the cerebral VEGF gene therapy.
Abstract: Effect of nitric oxide (NO) on vasomotor tone of cerebral parenchymal arterioles was studied in rats. Then, the role of NO was clinically investigated in the pathogenesis of progressive cerebral vascular occlusive disease, moyamoya disease. In rat, the cerebral arterioles, about 30–60 μm in diameter, were dilated by L‐arginine, a precursor of NO, at concentrations as low as 0.1 μmol with maximal dilation of 14% at 100 μmol. The arterioles were constricted by NG ‐monomethyl‐L‐arginine (L‐NMMA), a NO synthesis inhibitor. Superoxide dismutase, which seems to protect NO from inactivation, increased sensitivity of L‐arginine. Compared with control specimens of…cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 16 patients, concentrations NO metabolites in the CSF of 23 patients with moyamoya disease were significantly higher. NO metabolites concentrations obtained during initial surgery decreased during a second, contralateral procedure. NO plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone of cerebral parenchymal arterioles and contributes to the increase in collateral circulation in cerebral occlusive disease like moyamoya disease. Vascular bypass surgery can reduce NO metabolites together with abnormal collateral circulation.
Abstract: Intra‐carotid injections of degradable starch microspheres (DSMs) can induce DSM embolism‐reperfusion in the level of cerebral arterioles. Vascular responses of cerebral arterioles to repeated DSM embolism (ischemia)‐reperfusion were examined when DSMs were injected twice through a carotid artery with a time interval of 30 min. Arteriolar diameter was measured from images of arterioles filled with rhodamine‐B isothiocyanate dextran and red cell velocity was measured with a dual window technique using FITC‐labeled red cells as a flow tracer. DSM embolization induced ischemia (flow reduction including stasis) for approximately 10 min in the level of microvessels (arterioles). Cerebral arterioles began to dilate…immediately after embolism induced by the DSM injection and vasodilation was sustained until reperfusion. After reperfusion the arteriole began to constrict and the arteriolar diameter returned to the initial diameter level at approximately 20 min after the DSM injection. The arteriolar diameters for the second DSM embolism showed a similar response to those for the first embolism in 7 out of 8 cats. It can be concluded that the vascular response of cerebral arterioles to the second embolism‐reperfusion could not be affected by the first embolism‐reperfusion.
Abstract: This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of blockade of cerebral lymphatic drainage on cerebral ischemic damage. Seventy six Wistar rats were divided randomly into middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group and MCAO plus cerebral lymphatic blockade (MCAO+CLB) group for the experiment. The contents of water and electrolytes, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ischemic brain tissue were detected at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the operation. The morphologic examination was also performed. In MCAO group, contents of water, sodium and calcium in the ischemic brain tissue increased significantly at any…time after the operation. The SOD activity decreased while the MDA content increased markedly. The morphologic findings showed severe damage of ischemic brain tissue and neurons. In MCAO+CLB group, the above parameters were altered more obviously. The present observation suggests that blockade of cerebral lymphatic drainage may deteriorate ischemic brain damage after MCAO.
Abstract: The intraluminal lymphatic pressure in rabbit lumbar lymphatic trunks was determined. To estimate the lymphatic pressure, graphical analysis was performed from lymph outflow pressure–flow rate relationship and lymph infusion pressure–flow rate relationship. A direct measurement technique with a T‐tube was also carried out to measure the pressure in the lumbar lymphatic. The rabbit leg was passively rotated at 0.3 Hz in the diameter of 8 cm to enhance the lymphatic pump activity of the leg. The estimated pressure and measured pressure in the lymphatics were 6.50 and 7.14±2.38 cmH2 O, respectively. It was confirmed that similar values could be obtained…from these two methods. The lymphatic pumping in the leg may affect a distribution of pressure in the lumbar lymphatic system.
Abstract: This review starts with a brief description of the pioneering work done by J.R. Casley‐Smith when he looked at the pathophysiological changes that occur, and transport from the blood vessels, through the interstitium to the lymphatics and lymphatic uptake, with the electron microscope. Collaboration with, and further work by many colleagues producing a better understanding of lymphatic drainage, have led to this work being applied in the treatment of lymphoedema.
Abstract: Macrophages beneath the marginal sinus in the lymph nodes may play a role in defense against microorganism. The purpose of this study was to directly visualize the parasinus macrophages in the mesenteric lymph node. Fluorescent latex particles were injected into the appendix submucosa of rats. The mesenteric lymph node was epi‐illuminated and observed with a fluorescent microscope. Fluorescent particles entered the marginal sinus of the mesenteric lymph node through the afferent lymphatic vessels, and distributed diffusely all over the marginal sinus. The particles became aggregated and interspersed 3 hr after injection, suggesting that particles were incorporated by phagocytes. The number…of these particle‐laden phagocytes increased up to 12 hr after injection, and then declined. Some phagocytes migrated rapidly within the marginal sinus. Morphology of these phagocytes in cell suspension was consistent with macrophages. In conclusion, we successfully visualized parasinus macrophages in vivo, which incorporated foreign bodies and migrated within the marginal sinus.