Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 23, issue 2,3,4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lumbrokinase on the anticoagulation and fibrinolysis in treating cerebral infarction. Lumbrokinase was used in patients with cerebral infarction. Patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=31) and control group (n=20). Single blind method was used in this investigation. The Chinese stroke score was used to evaluate the results of treatment before and after administration of lumbrokinase. Kaolin partial thromboplastin time (KPTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen content, vWF content were analyzed, and tissue plasminogen activator (t‐PA) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity, D‐dimer level were assayed. In both groups, the stroke score decreased…after administration, but in the treatment group, it was more obvious. In the treatment group, KPTT was prolonged, t‐PA activity and D‐dimer level increased, while the content of fibrinogen decreased significantly. There were no significant changes of PT and PAI activity in both groups. It is concluded that lumbrokinase is beneficial to the treatment of cerebral infarction. The effect of lumbrokinase is related to the inhibition of intrinsic coagulation pathway and the activation of fibrinolysis via an increase of t‐PA activity.
Abstract: Ischemia and reperfusion were studied in isolated working rat hearts and in exarticulated rat hind limbs. Free radicals are known to be generated in ischemia/reperfusion and to propagate complications. To reduce reperfusion injury, conditions were ameliorated including the treatment with antioxidants, lipoate or dihydrolipoate. In isolated working rat hearts, cardiac and mitochondrial parameters are impaired during hypoxia and partially recover in reperfusion. Dihydrolipoate, if added into the perfusion buffer at 0.3 μM concentration, keeps the pH higher (7.15) during hypoxia, as compared to controls (6.98). This compound accelerates and stabilizes the recovery of the aortic flow. With dihydrolipoate, ATP synthesis…is increased, ATPase activity (ATP hydrolysis) reduced, intracellular creatine kinase activity maintained and thus phosphocreatine contents are higher than in controls. For exarticulated rat hind limbs, the dihydrolipoate group contained 8.3 μM in the modified reperfusate. Recovery of the contractile function was 49% vs. 34% in controls and muscle flexibility was maintained whereas it decreased by 15% in the controls. Release of creatine kinase from cells was significantly lower with dihydrolipoate. Lipoate/dihydrolipoate effectively reduced reperfusion injury in isolated working rat hearts and in exarticulated rat hind limbs after extended ischemia. Finally, the compound was successfully applied in an in vivo pig hind limb model.
Abstract: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) and thrombangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) are idiopathic, inflammatory arteriopathies with strong indications for the involvement of autoimmunity and host genetic factors in their immunopathogenesis. The exact etiology of these arteriopathies still remains unknown even after almost nine decades of their description. A series of immunogenetic studies conducted worldwide seeking to define genetic factors in governing immune response in these diseases have yielded conflicting results on the involvement of HLA molecules. While an association of HLA‐B5 or its molecular subtypes with Takayasu's arteriitis has been emphasized in patients from Japan, Korea and India, no such association has been…reported in Mexican and North American patients. On the other hand, a limited data is available on the association of HLA antigens with Buerger's disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the immunogenetics of Buerger's disease and Takayasu's arteriitis in the context of studies in North Indian patients and those in other ethnic groups. Our studies indicate a positive association of Takayasu's arteriitis with the HLA‐B5 molecule with no preferential association with its two major subtypes. In Buerger's disease, we have observed a strong positive association with HLA‐DRB1* 1501 consistent with the findings in Japanese patients. These results suggest an important role of HLA linked factors in governing susceptibility to both arteriopathies.
Abstract: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is caused mainly by an alteration in the elasticity of venous walls and the dysfunction of venous valves. The diagnosis and treatment for CVI management are discussed in this paper.
Abstract: Microcirculatory disturbances lead to chronic ulceration of the leg, and this symptom is a sign of a chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), caused by increased leg vein pressure and continous changes in vein pressure, which need medical treatment, and if a chronic capillary reaction present, treatment by applying a graduated compression bandage of the leg is mandatory. Subcutaneous tissue hypoxaemia and interstitial edema lead to worsening of the ulcer and need intensive and systematic wound care, because unhealed chronic wound with trophic changes of the skin is the major cause of further CVI changes of the leg. As chronic venous disease…has complex etiologic basis, it needs diagnostics and treatment modality based on various approaches, and that microcirculatory pathophysiological approach should be considered in all kinds of the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Microcirculation pathology should be used as an approach in the treatment regiment of CVI, whilst the basic pathophysiology of the venous diseases, which is known as one of the causes of CVI. This approach will give better results of treatment and other pathologic disturbances which were caused by chronic vitious circle chain processes.
Abstract: The physiological changes occurring during exercise and its possible consequences have been receiving considerable attention lately. In this paper, we studied the changes in hemorheological and microcirculatory parameters, before and after the exercise, in the subjects undergoing mild exercise (n=20). A cycle ergometer adjusted at 2.5 kilopounds was used for 15 minutes. The whole blood viscosity showed a significant increase after exercise at all shear rates (0.512–51.2/s) except at the high shear rate (94.5/s). However, the significant level was more (P<0.005) at low shear rates (0.512–4.39/s). A significant elevation in plasma viscosity was observed after the exercise (P<0.0008). Red cell…rigidity showed a significant increase after the exercise (P<0.001) while red cell aggregation and hematocrit failed to show any significant change. Microcirculatory studies showed a significant increase in the basal perfusion level after exercise (P<0.0002) when compared to the resting state value. There was a significant decrease in reactive hyperaemia perfusion index after exercise (P<0.0007). Hence, it is evident from this study that short‐term exercise significantly alters hemorheological and microcirculatory parameters.
Abstract: Antiangiogenesis strategy has been widely recognized as a viable approach to fight cancer. Considering the high cost and inconvenience of protein therapy of endostatin (ES), which is a potent antiangiogenic protein, we attempted to explore the inhibitory effect of ES gene therapy on tumor growth and metastasis. In this experiment, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)‐bearing C57/BL mice were used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ES gene therapy and its impairment of tumor neovasculature. The data showed that the ectopic ES in circulation expressed by intramuscular administration of formulated ES‐encoding plasmid DNA significantly suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in…LLC‐bearing C57/BL mice. Hence, our results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of ES gene therapy on angiogenesis‐dependent tumor growth and metastasis.
Abstract: This paper aimed to study the mechanism of vascular hyporeactivity during severe hemorrhagic shock. Rats were divided into control and shock group. Membrane potential of arteriolar strips was measured with intracellular recording method and membrane potential changes in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMC) were recorded with membrane potential sensitive fluorescent dye (DiBAC4) and confocal microscopy. Hyperpolarization of ASMC membrane appeared at the late stage of shock, which correlated to low vasoreactivity. Glybenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP channel reversed the hyperpolarizing effect. S‐nitroso‐N‐acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a donor of NO, in a higher concentration (400 mol/l) caused membrane hyperpolarization in control and…shock group, which was completely reversed by application of Tiron, a scavenger of O2 − . The hyperpolarizing effect of SNAP was decreased by ODQ, glybenclamide and (or) charybdotoxin. It is concluded that hyperpolarization of ASMC leads to vascular hyporeactivity. Peroxynitrite (OONO− ) involves in the development of hyperpolarization in severe shock. The production of cGMP and activation of KATP and KCa channel contribute to the hyperpolarizing effect of OONO−· .
Abstract: The effect of adrenomedullin (AM) on the cardiac performance and coronary flow were studied in an isolated perfused rat heart model based on the modified Langendorff method. The heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), left ventricular contraction (LVC) (dP/dt), and coronary flow (CF) were measured before and after the application of AM. The effect of AM on the coronary flow was examined in the model with and without endothelial degradation, using different inhibitors such as NG ‐nitro‐L‐arginine, glibenclamide, and indomethacin. The present results indicated that AM increased HR and CF, but decreased LVC significantly, while it had no effect on ECG.…The vasodilatory effect of AM was discussed in views of endothelial‐dependence due to nitric oxide and K+ channel activation.
Abstract: The primate model has been used for investigations on the physiology and pharmacology of erection. Recent in vitro investigations indicate that nitric oxide (NO)‐donor act as the mediator of penile erection, but it is unclear whether NO‐donor could enhance the relaxation effect of sildenafil on diabetic penile smooth muscle. To determine the relaxation effect of NO‐donor on diabetic penile smooth muscle, we studied strips of corpus cavernosum tissue obtained from 15 diabetic cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Contraction was induced on isolated strips of corporal smooth muscle by norepinephrine; then relaxation was assessed with the administration of two agents: selective phosphodiesterase…type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor (sildenafil citrate) and S‐nitroso‐N‐acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO‐donor, and combination of both agents. Analysis of variance was used to compare the responses to the different agents under various treatments. It was concluded that NO‐donor could not enhance the relaxation effect of sildenafil on corpus cavernosum of diabetic monkey.