Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 32, issue 5
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The patellar and quadriceps tendons are responsible for the extension mechanism of the knee joint and frequently become inflamed during sports. Diagnosis and determination of when an athlete can return to sports following these injuries are usually performed by assessing morphological features and functional outcomes. Nevertheless, mechanical properties are not being assessed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the stiffness characteristics of these two tendons over the range of knee flexion and to test the feasibility of using strain ultrasound elastography (SE). METHODS: SE with an acoustic coupler as the reference was performed for nine healthy males. Relative…stiffness measurements were obtained using the strain ratio (SR = target tissue strain/reference strain) by placing the knee in five different flexion angles. Lower SR indicates higher relative stiffness. RESULTS: This study showed reliable measurement with good intra- and inter-rater agreement for SR at 30°. SR of the quadriceps tendon decreases as knee flexion increases, indicating increased relative stiffness. In the patellar tendon, no significant difference was observed between 30° and 60°. Beyond 60°, relative stiffness increased constantly. CONCLUSIONS: SE is a reproducible and feasible tool to monitor relative stiffness of the patellar and quadriceps tendons in routine clinical settings.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several finite element (FE) models have been developed to study the effects of vibration on human lumbar spine. However, the authors know of no published results so far that have proposed computed tomography-based FE models of whole lumbar spine including the pelvis to conduct dynamic analysis. OBJECTIVE: To create and validate a three-dimensional ligamentous FE model of the human lower thorax to pelvis spinal segment (T12–Pelvis) and provide a detailed simulation environment to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the lumbar spine under whole body vibration (WBV). METHODS: The T12–Pelvis model was generated based on volume…reconstruction from computed tomography scans and validated against the published experimental data. FE modal analysis was implemented to predict dynamic characteristics associated with the first-order vertical resonant frequency and vibration mode of the model with upper body mass of 40 kg under WBV. RESULTS: It was found that the current FE model was validated and corresponded closely with the published data. The obtained results from the modal analysis indicated that the first-order vertical resonant frequency of the T12–Pelvis model was 6.702 Hz, and the lumbar spine mainly performed vertical motion with a small anteroposterior motion. It was also found that shifting the upper body mass centroid onwards or rearwards from the normal upright sitting posture reduced the vertical resonant frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be helpful to better understand vibration response of the human spine, and provide important information to minimize injury and discomfort for these WBV-exposed occupational groups.
Keywords: Finite element modeling, human spine, lower thorax to pelvis segment, modal analysis, validation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bone volume augmentation is a routine technique used in oral implantology and periodontology. Advances in the surgical techniques and the biomaterials field have allowed a greater accessibility to these treatments. Nevertheless, dehiscence and fenestrations incidence during dental implant procedures are still common in patients with bone loss. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to evaluate in a pilot experimental study the biological response to mesoporous silica (MS) hybrid scaffolds and its regenerative capacity in different formulations. METHODS: Two defects per rabbit tibia were performed (one for control and other for test) and the biomaterials tested in…this study have been used to fill the bone defects, prepared in two different formulations (3D hybrid scaffolds or powdered material, in 100% pure MS form, or 50% MS with 50% hydroxyapatite (HA). Euthanasia was performed 4 months after surgery for bone histopathological study and radiographic images were acquired by computerized microtomography. RESULTS: Results showed that radiographically and histopathologically pure MS formulations lead to a lower biological response, e.g when formulated with HA, the osteogenic response in terms of osteoconduction was greater. CONCLUSIONS: We observed tolerance and lack of toxicity of the MS and HA, without registering any type of local or systemic allergic reaction.
Keywords: Animal model, rabbit, mesoporous silica, hydroxyapatite, bone augmentation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Embolization degree acts as an important factor affecting recurrence of aneurysm. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of hemodynamics parameters of different degrees of embolization in the occurrence, development and post-treatment of aneurysms, and to determine the specific factors causing the occurrence and recurrence of aneurysms after hemodynamics treatment. Our study provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of aneurysms. METHODS: Computed tomography angiography data of a patient with cerebral aneurysm was used to model 0%, 24%, 52%, 84% and 100% of endovascular embolization, respectively. The time average wall shear stress, time average wall…shear stress, oscillatory shear index, hemodynamics formation index and relative retentive time were used to analyze the changes of hemodynamics indexes in different embolic models. RESULTS: With the increase of embolic rate, the values of time average wall shear stress, time average wall shear stress grade and aneurysm index formation gradually increased, and the values of relative retention time gradually decreased. Oscillatory shear index was higher in patients with incomplete embolization and decreased in patients with complete embolization. CONCLUSIONS: As the degree of embolization increased, the blood flow tended to stabilize, reducing the risk of cerebral aneurysm rupture, and finding that the wall of the vessel junction was susceptible to injury.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is reported as one of the most common sources of death all over the world. The presence of stenosis (plaque) in the coronary arteries results in the restriction of blood supply, which leads to myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of multi stenosis on hemodynamics parameters in idealized coronary artery models with varying degrees of stenosis and interspace distance between the stenosis. METHODS: A finite volume-based software package (Ansys CFX version 17.2) was employed to model the blood flow. The hemodynamic stenosis parameters of blood,…such as the pressure, velocity, and wall shear stress were obtained. RESULTS: The computed results showed that the pressure drop is maximum across the 90% area stenosis (AS). The pressure drop is increased as the distance between the proximal and distal stenosis is decreased across the proximal stenosis for the model P70 _D70 during the systolic period of the cardiac cycle. A recirculation zone is formed behind the stenosis and is restricted by the occurrence of distal stenosis as the interspacing distance decreases, which could lead to further progression of stenosis in the flow-disturbed area. The wall shear stress was found to increase as the distance between the proximal and distal stenosis is increased across the distal stenosis. The maximum wall shear stress was found at 90% AS. CONCLUSIONS: In the clinical diagnosis, an overestimation of distal stenosis severity could be possible. Furthermore, the low wall shear stress zone in between the proximal and distal stenosis may help atherosclerotic growth or merge adjacent stenosis.