Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 26, issue s1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th–21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the…advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014–2015.
Keywords: Frontiers in biomedical engineering, biomedical imaging, ICBEB
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in flexural strength and compressive strength between four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements that are commonly used in clinics. Furthermore, this study investigates the influence of curing mode on the flexural strength and compressive strength of dual-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Initially, flexural strength and compressive strength test specimens were prepared for RL, NR, GCP, and GCC. The RL group and NR group were cured by the light-curing mode and chemical-curing mode. Five specimens were prepared for each test group, and the flexural strength and compressive strength of each were…measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 13.0. Furthermore, the fracture morphology of the flexural specimens was observed by SEM. The result of the mean flexural strength of each group is as follows: the NR light-cured group > NR chemically-cured group > GCP > RL light-cured group > GCC > RL chemically-cured group. More specifically, the flexural strength of the NR light-cured group ((42.903±4.242) MPa) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups, and in addition, the flexural strength of the light-curing mode is significantly higher (P<0. 05) than that of both the NR and RL chemically-cured groups. The result of the mean compressive strength of each group is as follows: GCP > NR chemically-cured group > NR light-cured group > GCC > RL light-cured group > RL chemically-cured group. Although the compressive strengths of the NR and GCP groups are higher than those of the GCC and RL groups, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between NR and GCP, and no significant differences between GCC and RL. Furthermore, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two curing modes on NR and RL. From the present study, it can be concluded that NR has superior flexural strength and compressive strength compared to the other three materials. Additionally, the curing mode can affect the flexural strength of dual-cured RMGIC because with the light-curing mode, the flexural strength is higher than with the chemical-curing mode. Therefore, light curing is an essential procedure when using dual-cured RMGIC in clinics.
Keywords: Resin-modified glass ionomer cements, flexural strength, compressive strength, curing mode, light cured and chemical cured
Abstract: Minimization of the peak stresses and fracture incidence induced by mastication function is considered critical in design of all-ceramic dental restorations, especially for cantilever fixed partial dentures (FPDs). The focus of this study is on developing a mechanically-sound optimal design for all-ceramic cantilever dental bridge in a posterior region. The topology optimization procedure in association with Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is implemented here to search for the best possible distribution of porcelain and zirconia materials in the bridge structure. The designs with different volume fractions of zirconia are considered. The results show that this new methodology is capable of…improving FPD design by minimizing incidence of crack in comparison with the initial design. Potentially, it provides dental technicians with a new design tool to develop mechanically sound cantilever fixed partial dentures for more complicated clinical situation.
Abstract: To improve the biocompatibility of PP monofilaments used for pelvic reconstruction mesh, natural pearl powders were introduced as fillers in the preparation of modified PP monofilaments. The mechanical properties the modified PP monofilaments were analyzed, followed by characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the biocompatibilities of these samples were investigated by MTT assay. The results revealed that the tensile strength and elongation of the as-prepared PP monofilaments can satisfy the requirement. According to the SEM images, masses of pearl powder were observed on the surface of monofilaments, which may favor the cell growth. The MTT results and the confocal…microscopical images indicated that the presence of pearl powder in PP monofilaments led to improved proliferation and growth of L929 and PIEC cells under the same conditions, suggesting that PP monofilaments modified by pearl powders have a great potential in the applications of pelvic reconstruction.
Keywords: PP monofilament, pearl powder, mechanical property, biocompatibility, pelvic
Abstract: This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color…difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r2 =0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r2 =0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.
Abstract: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay or ELISA -based diagnostics are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reaction including in the measurement of antibody response to infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification with application potential in infectious disease outbreaks and individual patients’ treatment and clinical care. The rapid prototyping of ELISA-based diagnostics using available 3D printing technologies provides an opportunity for a further exploration of this platform into immunodetection systems. In this study, a ‘3D-Well ’ was designed and fabricated using available 3D printing platforms to have an increased surface area of more than 4 times for protein-surface…adsorption compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity in designing-product development-feedback cycle offered through 3D printing platforms provided an opportunity for its rapid assessment, in which a chemical etching process was used to make the surface hydrophilic followed by validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA for infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The higher sensitivity of the 3D-Well (3-folds higher) compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for laboratory or field diagnosis of infectious diseases including applications in other disciplines.
Keywords: 3D printing, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), chemical etching, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), infectious disease surveillance
Abstract: The unique micro porous structure of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) that allows bio-integration for fixation, as well as overall mechanical integrity make it used successfully in a number of biomedical and clinical applications, which include the reconstruction of the pulmonary valve in in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (RVOT) operations. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the thermal treatment on physical and mechanical properties of ePTFE membranes. ePTFE sheets were cut into 16 rectangle strips (10 mm by 60 mm) and evenly separated into 4 groups. One group was the blank control (group A), while the…rest of the three groups (group B to D) were heated to 350°C and cooled to 24°C at different cooling rates (10°C/min, 20°C/min and rapid ambient air cooling) in a temperature controlled atmosphere. The mechanical and morphological characteristics of all the samples were tested using a tensile test machine and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the elastic modulus of group B to D was 24.95%, 33.45% and 72.76% higher than group A. The percentage elongation of groups B to D was found to be between 2.3% and 40.45% lower than group A. The proportion of pores in the ePTFE membrane was reduced following the thermal treatment. There were no morphology differences observed between groups B to D. In summary, the selection of cooling rate was important for preserving the mechanical properties of ePTFE membranes under thermal treatment. These findings may provide useful information for the preparation of molded ePTFE valve in RVOT operations.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding ability of four representative dentin-adhesive systems by applying the micro-shear bond strength (μ -SBS) test method and to evaluate the influence of adhesive area limitation on the bond strength. Two different adhesive application methods were used in the μ -SBS test (with and without adhesives area limitation), and four representative adhesive systems were used in this study. Each dentin surface was treated with one of the four representative adhesive systems, and with twenty samples per group (n=20), each of the four groups underwent a μ -SBS test. The results showed…that the bond strength was significantly influenced by the adhesive application method (p <0.05), the adhesive type (p <0.05) and the interaction between the two factors (p <0.05). With regard to the four representative dentin-adhesive systems, 3-E&R has a much better bond quality compared to the other adhesive systems. Furthermore, the micro-shear bond strength test method of restricting the area of both the adhesive and the resin is more reliable for evaluating the bonding property of adhesives to dentin, and it is also adequate for comparing the different adhesives systems.
Keywords: Adhesive area limitation, adhesive system, dentin, adhesive, micro-shear bond strength
Abstract: A novel artificial peroxidase (AP) with highly catalytic efficiency was designed using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB, 3 mM) nano-micelles and bovine heart cytochrome c (Cyt c , 0.5 µM) in 100 mM, pH 8.0 phosphate buffer at 25°C. The catalytic rate (kcat ) and Michaelis-Menten (Km ) of the AP were determined to be 0.311 ± 0.013 s−1 and 8.64 ± 0.6 µM. The catalytic efficiency was 0.0360 ± 0.0020 µM−1 s−1 (about 50% the efficiency of native horseradish peroxidase). The Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer and Circular Dichroism techniques were applied to study the properties of the CTAB-Cyt c…nano-micelle. Designed AP can be applied instead of native horseradish peroxidase.