Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 18, issue 4-5
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Introduction: Repairing contour defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. Different filling materials have been used with inadequate results and complications. The autologous fat transfer is the standard technique at the moment, but adipose tissue reserves are limited. The aim of our study was to compare in vivo on an animal model, preadipocytes cultured in a collagen scaffold versus adipose tissue transferred by the usual surgical technique. Materials and methods: In order to compare adipocytes resulting from the differentiation of preadipocytes with those of purified adipose tissue, we implanted them in 10 nude mice. The preadipocytes were implanted using…a collagen scaffold as intermediary and the adipose tissue following the plastic surgery protocol described by SR Coleman. After 8 weeks, tissue fragments were explanted and analysed after staining with HPS, Oil Red O and labelling with human anti-vimentin antibodies. Results: The scaffold seeded with preadipocytes had the macroscopic appearance of adipose tissue with peripheral neovascularisation. The preadipocytes had been transformed into mature adipocytes. Purified adipose tissue also presented peripheral neovascularisation. Numerous mature adipocytes were found. There was an abundant murine extracellular matrix since anti-vimentin labelling was negative. Conclusion: This experimental study showed that adipose tissue engineering is feasible and gives comparable results to fat grafting. It allows a better understanding of the sequence of events following the transfer of adipose tissue. It provides not only volume but also undeniable stimulation, leading to significant thickening of the extracellular matrix.
Abstract: Adipose tissue is the standard autologous filling material used in plastic surgery today. At the same time it is also a source of mesenchymal stem cells, situated in the Stromal–Vascular Fraction (SVF) and easy to obtain in large quantities. The method of harvesting adipose tissue is an important stage for cell survival. So far, comparative studies on harvesting techniques have only concerned MTT cell viability of mature adipocytes. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of pressure on the yield of SVF cells in relation to the syringe aspiration technique which is the standard technique in plastic…surgery. For this, six different harvesting conditions were tested on 3 patients. For each condition, a sample was taken from the trochanter region with the help of a 3 mm cannula, manual aspiration by a 10 ml syringe; wall suction; the traditional pump suction at −350 and −700 mmHg; the power assisted liposuction at −350 and −700 mmHg. Cell yield with a pressure of −350 mmHg, assisted or not, was greater than that obtained at −700 mmHg and significantly superior to aspiration with a syringe (p<0.05). At −350 mmHg, the use of power-assisted liposuction gave better results for two out of three patients when compared to non-power-assisted liposuction. Negative pressure is a factor influencing the number of SVF cells harvested.
Abstract: In tissue engineering, surface characteristics of a biomaterial are one of most important factors determining the compatibility with the environment. They influence attachment and growth of cells onto the material. In many cases, the surface should to be modified and engineered in the desired direction. The modification of non-adhesive surfaces with polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PMF) was recently depicted as a powerful technique to promote the growth of different cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the possible use of two different PMF as surface modification for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We used two types of PMF which…differed by the nature of the initial anchoring layer which was poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). This initial polyelectrolytes adsorption was followed by the alternated deposition of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and (PAH) in order to obtain a PEI–(PSS–PAH)3 film or a PAH–(PSS–PAH)3 film. In order to control the behaviour of MSC, the cell viability was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay and the actin cytoskeleton was labelled and visualised in a confocal microscope. The behaviour of cells on the two PMF was compared to cells cultivated on surfaces treated with fibronectin. The results showed that PAH–(PSS–PAH)3 PMF improve the growth of cells, inducing a higher cell viability compared to PEI–(PSS–PAH)3 PMF and fibronectin at 2, 3 and 7 days of culture. Moreover, those cells showed a well-organized actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, PAH–(PSS–PAH)3 polyelectrolyte multilayer film seems to constitute an excellent material for MSC seeding.
Abstract: Recent studies have shown effects of mechanical environment on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC). In order to examine how BMSC and their cytoskeleton respond to mechanical stimulation, we investigated their collagen synthesis and F-actin expression. Rat BMSC were harvested from adult rats and cultured to passage 4. Then the cells were seeded onto a silicone membrane loaded with an uniaxial cyclic stretching (10%, 1 Hz) during 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. The levels of collagen type I and III before and after stretching were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, and the F-actin in cytoplasm was observed by confocal microscopy.…Immunocytochemistry results showed that the stretching enhanced the synthesis of collagen types I and III in BMSC after 24 h stimulation. However, a decrease in fluorescence density of F-actin was observed after the stretching in a time dependent manner. In addition, the F-actin filaments seemed much thinner than those of static cells. These results indicated that the cyclic stretching favored the synthesis of collagen types I and III, but decreased the amount of F-actin in the BMSC.