Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 14, issue 4
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 245.00
Impact Factor 2023: 1.0
The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The physiochemical nature of surfaces can be changed by small proteins which are secreted by filamentous fungi. These proteins, called hydrophobins, are characterized by the presence of eight conserved cysteine residues and a typical hydropathy pattern. Upon contact with a hydrophilic–hydrophobic interface they self‐assemble into highly insoluble amphipathic membranes. As a result, hydrophobic surfaces become hydrophilic and vice versa. Genetic engineering of hydrophobins was used to study structure–function relationships. In addition, engineered hydrophobins were constructed to increase the biocompatibility of surfaces. The glycosylated N‐terminal region of the mature SC3 hydrophobin was deleted and the cell‐binding domain of human fibronectin was…introduced at the N‐terminus. The gross properties of the hydrophobins were not affected. However, the physiochemical properties of the hydrophilic side of the assembled protein did change. Growth of fibroblasts on Teflon could be improved by coating the solid with the engineered hydrophobins. Thus, by changing the N‐terminal part of hydrophobins, the physiochemical nature of the hydrophilic side of the assembled form can be altered and a variety of new functionalities introduced. The fact that hydrophobins self‐assemble at any hydrophilic–hydrophobic interface, irrespective of the chemical nature of the surface, therefore provides a generic approach to modify surfaces and make them interesting candidates for the use in various technical and medical applications.
Abstract: Glucose or lactate biosensors are very useful for monitoring metabolism. Continuous monitoring of glucose is for example very important in diabetic patients. The measurement of lactate, a marker for oxygen deficiency, is used in the intensive care unit to monitor the patients' condition. In our laboratory we have developed two types of on‐line biosensors to measure in vivo glucose and lactate: a sandwich‐type biosensor and, very recently, a miniaturized flow‐through biosensor. These biosensors are not placed in the body itself, but are connected to implanted microdialysis or ultrafiltration probes. Both types of biosensors are based on the oxidation of substrate…using glucose oxidase or lactate oxidase and electrochemical detection. In the sandwich‐type sensor, the enzymes are physically immobilized between two cellulose nitrate filters, and operate with ferrocene as a mediator. In the miniaturized biosensor, with an internal volume of 10–20 nanolitres, the enzymes are immobilized on the electrode via in situ encapsulation in poly(1,3‐phenylenediamine). In this review we shall explain the working of these biosensors, and describe their application in clinical monitoring and experimental research.
Abstract: Bioactive materials are routinely used in dental and orthopaedic applications. The concept was first introduced in 1971, with the discovery of 45S5 Bioglass® , which is known to develop an interfacial bond between the implant and the host tissue. This glass is composed of SiO2 , CaO, P2 O5 and Na2 O. Since then numerous glasses and glass ceramics with similar compositions have been extensively studied for clinical applications. Until 1990 it was accepted that P2 O5 and Na2 O were necessary components for the glass composition to be bioactive. However, calcium silicate glasses with high SiO2…content are impossible to produce using the traditional melt‐quench method. This is due to the liquid–liquid immiscibility region that is present between 0.02 and 0.3 mole fraction of CaO and in terms of bioactivity, high CaO compositions were inferior to those quaternary bioactive glass compositions already in existence. In the last few years several studies have been reported regarding the production of CaO–SiO2 glasses via the sol–gel processing technique. This report summarises the findings of the past and the present and also outlines potential of these calcium silicate gel‐glasses in the field of biomaterials.
Abstract: The incidence of osteoporotic bone fractures is growing exponentially as the western population ages and as life expectancy increases. Vertebroplasty, where acrylic or calcium phosphate cement is injected into the weakened vertebrae to augment them, is an emerging procedure for treating spinal fragility fractures. However, cement injection is currently limited because there are no clear standards for a safe, reproducible and predictable procedure. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that bone cements play in the underlying bio‐mechanisms that affect the outcomes of cement injection. Our most important finding after combining clinical, laboratory and theoretical research is…that the process of cement injection poses conflicting demands on bone cements. The cements are required to be more viscous and less viscous at the same time. The challenge therefore is to develop biomaterials, techniques and/or devices that can overcome or manage the conflicting demands on cement viscosity.
Keywords: Vertebroplasty, biomaterials, acrylic and calcium‐phosphate bone cements, injectability, extravasation, injection forces
Abstract: The importance of knee meniscus function is now recognized, and the treatment of meniscus injury has been changing from resection to repair. However, depending on the type of injury, meniscectomy sometimes cannot be avoided. In such case, it is important to anticipate the future problem of degenerative change or osteoarthrosis in knee joint. In future, autograf using regenerative meniscus will be developed by tissue engineering. However, even if it will be possible, considering the healing period, the young athlete with severe meniscus injury may select meniscectomy in order to return to sports life as early as possible avoiding the…long immobilization or declining sports skill. In consideration of the prognosis and circumstances in such patients, we need a artificial meniscus for salvage. To assess further the use of polyvinyl alcohol‐hydrogel (PVA‐H) artificial meniscus, we performed some mechanical tests about PVA‐H and animal experiment. In mechanical tests, we found that a high water content PVA‐H showed viscoelastic behaviour similar to that of human meniscus. Moreover, the frictional coefficient of PVA‐H against natural articular cartilage was also effective. In the animal experiment using rabbits, the lateral meniscus was replaced with an artificial meniscus in one knee side and lateral meniscectomy was performed in another knee side of each rabbit. We have already reported the results up to 1 year after operation, present study investigated the results in postoperative 1.5 years. In the results, the articular cartilage state of knee joint implanted PVA‐H meniscus was good even after 1.5 years, while OA change progressed in meniscectomy knee joint. In addition, neither wear nor breakage of PVA‐H was observed. These results proved that an artificial meniscus using a high water content PVA‐H can compensate for meniscal function and might be clinically applicable.
Keywords: Polyvinyl alcohol‐hydrogel (PVA‐H), meniscectomy, osteoarthritis (OA), artificial meniscus, high water content
Abstract: Bioabsorbable fixation devices have been used in craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery since the early 70's. In our departments the experimental use started in the 80's with self‐reinforced (SR) polylactide devices. The first clinical operations were carried out in 1991. Since that time, we have used different types of self‐reinforced bioabsorbable devices in the fixation of several hundreds of osteotomies and fractures. Patients' acceptance has been generally excellent and very few complications occurred during this follow‐up of over 10 years. The complications have been minor and have not affected the end results of the operations. In only one oncologic patient, the devices…needed to be removed and replaced with a rigid reconstruction plate. The minor complications consisted mainly of a few infections, dehiscence of the wound and plate exposure together with granulation tissue in the operation field. No implant‐specific complications were recorded. However, there is a learning curve for the surgeon, as there is with all new methods introduced. Based on our experience, self‐reinforced bioabsorbable devices are safe to be used in several indications in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton, also in load‐shearing situations.
Keywords: Craniomaxillofacial surgery, resorbable, absorbable, bone plates and screws
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium after surface modification by the ion implantation of calcium or phosphorus or calcium + phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus ions were implanted in a dose of 1017 ions/cm2 . The ion beam energy was 25 keV. The microstructure of the implanted layers was examined by TEM. The chemical composition of the surface layers was determined by XPS and SIMS. The corrosion resistance was examined by electrochemical methods in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at a temperature of 37°C. The biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. As shown by TEM…results, the surface layers formed during calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation were amorphous. The results of the electrochemical examinations (Stern's method) indicate that the calcium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus implantation into the surface of titanium increases its corrosion resistance in stationary conditions after short‐ and long‐term exposures in SBF. Potentiodynamic tests show that the calcium‐implanted samples undergo pitting corrosion during anodic polarisation. The breakdown potentials measured are high (2.5 to 3 V). The good biocompatibility of all the investigated materials was confirmed under the specific conditions of the applied examination, although, in the case of calcium implanted titanium it was not as good as that of non‐implanted titanium.
Keywords: Titanium, ion implantation, corrosion resistance, biocompatibility
Abstract: The interaction between implant materials and bone cells or oral epithelial (OE) cells contributes to the clinical success of dental implants. The functional activity of cells in contact with an implant is determined by its surface properties. Before cells attach, extracellular matrix (ECM) in the serum deposits on the substrate; rounded cells then attach and spread upon it. Cells form focal adhesions and polarize, then start to migrate or proliferate to form colonies. Comparison of the attachment and behavior of osteoblastic cells on titanium (Ti) and hydroxyapatite (HA) revealed that more cells attached on HA and that these spread more…rapidly than on Ti. In contrast, cells did not form good stress fibers or vinculin‐positive focal adhesions on HA, whereas the cells on Ti possessed well‐defined and polarized stress fibers. The initial attachment of OE cells to Ti was inferior to that on polystyrene culture dish or glass, and the OE cell migration area, indicated by the deposition of LN5, was smaller on Ti than on the other materials. This review summarizes data on the attachment and behavior of osteoblastic cells and OE cells on biomaterials, which may suggest future improvements in surface properties.
Abstract: Intercellular adhesions are known to play an important role in differentiation of osteoblasts and in the development of bone tissue architecture. However, to our knowledge, they have never been studied during the formation of bone tissue in contact with a biomaterial surface. In an in vitro kinetic study, we followed the expression of proteins involved in cell–cell interactions (β‐catenin), in cell–material interactions (vinculin) and in cytoskeleton (actin) of human osteoblastic cells cultured on grooved titanium‐based substrates during 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The human osteoblasts aligned themselves in the 150 μm wide grooves only after 24…hours. The distribution of vinculin‐positive focal contacts, actin cytoskeleton and β‐catenin positive‐adherens junctions was not significantly influenced by the cell alignment. β‐catenin‐positive adherens junctions were expressed by human osteoblasts as soon as 1 hour after inoculation. At this time, they showed a patch‐like aspect along cytoplasmic processes in contact with an underlying or an adjacent cell. After 2 hours, the patches were more and more numerous underlining the connections between cells. After 4 hours and more, the patches were organised in a parallel arrangement perpendicular to the two connected cells forming a “zip‐like” aspect. Additionally, using double immuno‐staining, we demonstrated that sometimes β‐catenin and vinculin appeared co‐localised and sometimes not. The linkage of catenin/cadherin complex and vinculin‐positive focal contacts with actin filaments may explain this apparent co‐localisation.
Keywords: Adhesion, β‐catenin, vinculin, osteoblast, titanium, actin, human
Abstract: Mucin is the main salivary protein in the mouth of animals including man. The present study aims at investigating the role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption of mucin to titanium in vitro. The binding profile of mucin to titanium was analyzed according to an adsorption isotherm. Mucin was dissolved and the solution suspended with native, calcium, magnesium, or potassium treated commercially pure Ti powder, at pH 3.0 and 7.4. The amount of unabsorbed protein in the supernatant fluid was measured. The maximum amount of adsorbed mucin was 0.11 mg/1.0 g of Ti. The mucin–Ti association constant was estimated to…be 2.91 ml/mg. Pretreatment of Ti with calcium, or magnesium alone, or combined resulted in increased adsorption of mucin to Ti. No increase in adsorption was recorded following pretreatment of Ti with potassium. The results indicate the involvement of electrostatic interactions in the absorption of mucin to Ti.