Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 9, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Numerous studies have shown the importance of blood rheological abnormalities in the course of venous insufficiency or thrombogenesis. Hemorheological interest in Troxerutin is now better known but the actual data and results are still fragmented. To confirm the clinical interest in the use of Troxerutin, it is necessary to show that the informations concerning its rheological action in vitro also confirm themselves in vivo. This study, in a double blind test with placebo, was carried out on 40 subjects: 20 control subjects and 20 patients suffering from varicose vein disease of which 10 received 4 g of Troxerutin per day…for 15 days, 10 received a placebo. Before and after treatment, the following microrheological parameters were measured in an antecubital vein and in varicose veins of the legs, before and after a stasis of 30 minutes: hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, whole blood filterability, erythrocyte filterability and erythrocyte aggregation tendency. A significant improvement of the main microrheological parameters of blood viscosity and in particular of the erythrocyte aggregation tendency after stasis confirms the therapeutic interest in Troxerutin in venous pathology or vascular stasis.
Abstract: The changes in plasma viscosity and plasma proteins were serially measured in 14 nulli- and 10 multiparae, during their normal pregnancies. As compared to the non-pregnant value plasma viscosity decreased in the first trimester, but increased during the second and third trimester until term. At 37 weeks, the plasma viscosity value exceeded the non-pregnant value, the difference being statistically significant. The increase in plasma viscosity during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was determined by the rise in fibrinogen concentration, which overruled the plasma viscosity lowering influence of the falling total serum protein concentration.
Keywords: plasma viscosity, normal pregnancy, fibrinogen
Abstract: Haematocrit, whole blood viscosity and blood viscosity at constant haematocrit of 45% were investigated in 271 diabetics with retinopathy and 20 healthy subjects. In whole blood, hyperviscosity was detected in 16% of the diabetic patients. In blood at haematocrit of 45%, hyperviscosity was found in 40.2% of the patients. When the viscosity measurements were performed at constant haematocrit, the parameter which had most influence on viscosity was red cell rigidity. Many of the diabetics with enhanced red cell rigidity achieved normalization of blood flow by haematocrit reduction. This observation suggests the existence of viscoreceptors. as suggested by Dintenfass, that detect…red cell rigidity and develop compensating mechanisms.
Abstract: Blood leeching is an ancient method of bloodletting, which has been used extensively in the treatment of various disorders since centuries in the natural medicine. The purpose of the present study was to see if, apart from the bloodletting benefit, the leech treatment effects the hemorheological properties. Whole blood from 23 patients (19 women and 4 men) with different diseases (cardiovascular and cerebral diseases, peripheral vascular disorders, etc.) was investigated before and after application of ten leeches on the lumbar region and one month after the first measurement. Whole blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, whole blood and plasma density and hematocrit…were determined as hemorheological parameters. The results showed that the whole blood viscoelasticity is significantly decreased after leech treatment although no significant changes of hematocrit and plasma viscosity could be observed. The decrease of blood viscoelasticity values was even more marked after one month of treatment. They correlated well with changes in aggregation tendency and flexibility of the red blood cells (RBC). These results suggest, that leeching is not a hemodilution effect alone. Moreover, apart from rendering blood noncoagulable by acting as antithrombin, the salivary gland secretion of these animals can also have a lasting effect on the hemorheological properties.
Abstract: Erythrocyte deformability indexes and some hematologic parameters of Thyroxine (T4 ) treated guinea pigs (n=12) were compared with the data obtained from a control group (n=11). Both T3 and T4 levels of the T4 treated animals were found to be significantly higher than the levels measured in the control group. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were higher in the hyperthyroid animals, while mean corpuscular volume in this group was significantly lower than the control group. On the other hand, mean indexes were found to be increased significantly in the T4 treated group. The…change in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and expected change in cytoplasmic viscosity of erythrocytes might explain the impairment in deformability.
Abstract: Power law regression analysis of the form γ = A·xB was performed on the dependence of blood viscosity on shear rate. By this way a blood viscosity versus shear rate curve could be comprised and expressed as two characteristic regression coefficients. Analysis of the dependence of A and B on hematocrit yields normal values for blood viscosity versus shear rate for each specific hematocrit, so blood viscosity can be evaluated for being normal or not, at the hematocrit of the blood sample itself.
Abstract: Whole blood viscosity was measured by a Contraves LS30 viscosimeter. The Contraves was equipped with a Hewlett Packard computer to achieve a complete automated and calibration controlled blood viscosity measurement for a large range of shear rates. A sound examination of the blood viscosity measurement shows that, in order to perform reliable measurements, the dependence of blood viscosity on shear rate should be determined going from low shear rate (0.01 s−l ) to high shear rate (100 s−l ).
Abstract: Blood rheology was studied in seven patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and eight sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects after induction of hypoglycaemia by a bolus injection of regular insulin (0.15 IU/kg). The diabetic patients had a significantly higher mean blood viscosity (4.86±0.14 mPa.s) and erythrocyte aggregation tendency (1.22± 0.06) in the basal state than the control subjects (3.92±0.17 mPa.s, p<0.001 and 1.00±0.03, p<0.01 respectively). During insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, the haematocrit and the plasma viscosity increased significantly in control subjects. In the diabetic patients the haematocrit remained unchanged and the plasma viscosity increased less than in the control subjects.…Blood viscosity and the aggregation tendency increased significantly in the two groups during hypoglycaemia and correlated significantly to the plasma adrenaline concentration at the glucose nadir (r=0.89, p<0.001 and r=0.63, p<0.01 respectively). Erythrocyte fluidity decreased significantly during hypoglycaemia in diabetic patients but not in the healthy subjects. The observed haemorheological changes during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia might imply an increased risk of thromboembolic events in association with hypoglycaemia in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Abstract: Sixteen diabetic patients from 30 to 63 years of age were treated with Ligustrazine (5 mg/kg in 250 ml of normal saline, venous drop, Q.D.) in a period of 20 days. Whole Blood Viscosity (WBV), Platelet Aggregation (PA) induced by ADP and Erythrocyte Deformability (ED) were tested before and during the treatment. The result shows that WBV at 3.75 s−1 shear rate was decreased (after 10 days, p < 0.05; after 20 days, p < 0.05), ADP-induced PA was decreased (after 10 days, p < 0.01; after 20 days, p < 0.05), ED was slightly changed. These results are…consistant with our previous animal studies and indicate that Ligustrazine could be a potential medication to ameliorate or prevent chronic vascular complications in diabetes.
Abstract: Hematological disorders and alterations of erythrocyte deformability have been noticed in sportsmen after strenuous exercise. To try and understand these phenomena, the authors studied blood flow parameters before and after effort. This study involved 47 sportsmen undergoing a 20 min intensive exercise, and 44 controls. The following parameters were recorded before and after exercise: blood filtration, erythrocyte filtration, blood and plama viscosities, ATP, 2–3 DPG, RBC aggregation, biochemistry, NFS, reticulocytes, plasma hemoglobin, complete iron work-up, plasma proteins. Blood and plasma viscosities, hematocrit, leukocytes and plasma proteins were significantly increased (p<0.01) while whole blood filtration decreased (p<0.001); ATP, 2–3 DPG, erythrocyte…filtration and saturation coefficient remained unchanged. On first approach, hemorheological disorders do not seem to be caused by an alteration of erythrocyte deformability, but more likely by a tendency to rouleaux-formation noticeable through SEM. These disorders may also result from hemoconcentration (↑ Hematocrit, ↑ protids), from cell demargination and preferential increase in certain plasma proteins after exercise.
Abstract: A previously published power law fitting method for studying whole blood viscosity has been fully computerized to improve its reliability. To a large number of viscometric values for normal and pathological blood obtained by this system, multiple regression analysis was applied, relating the blood viscosity data to the main viscosity determinants, i.e., hematocrit (Hct) and plasma viscosity (η p ). The results confirm and quantify the relative importance of these two main determinants of whole blood viscosity and aggregability. Furthermore, it is possible to standardize data for these variables, to obtain indexes of “cellular component” of blood viscosity.