Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 5, issue 5
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Erythrocyte deformability was studied by 5 μm pore filtration (initial-flow-rate and positive-pressure methods) and by viscometric and Ektacytometric techniques in 30 patients with liver disease compared with 30 matched controls. All of the rheological techniques demonstrated abnormal erythrocyte deformability in the patient group, with a left shift of the Ektacytometer Osmoscan curve correlating significantly with degree of liver failure. Abnormal erythrocyte morphology (codocytes, acanthocytes, and an increase in mean cell diameter), rather than an increase in mean cell volume, was a major determinant of abnormal erythrocyte deformability.
Abstract: The St. George’s Filtrometer was designed to differentiate between the two major factors effecting blood filterability: red cell transit and filter clogging. Using this method, blood filterability was studied in 20 patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Pentoxifylline (RentylinR ) improved filterability of blood cell suspensions of standardized red and white cell counts. A statistically significant but small (5%) increase of red cell deformability accompanied with an apparently more significant (36%) decrease of filter clogging was found. This seems to reflect qualitative change of leucocytes. It is suggested, that besides improving intrinsic red cell deformability, Pentoxyfilline might have an other, possibly…important pharmacological action in peripheral vascular disease.
Abstract: In epidemiological studies, residents of a fishing village had lower whole blood viscosity and higher red blood cell (RBC) filterability than residents of a farming village. Daily administration of either fish oil concentrate containing 1.4 g EPA or 3.6 g EPA-ethylester (EPA-E) to 7 normal volunteers for 4 weeks resulted in a reduction in whole blood viscosity. EPA-E administration was found to increase RBC-filterability. In clinical studies, we treated 40 male patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (15 patients), hyperlipidemia (12 patients), ischemic heart disease (11 patients) and other diseases (2 patients) with 2.7 g EPA-E for 16 weeks. Whole blood…viscosity decreased and RBC-filterability increased in 8–16 weeks. It seems that an increase in EPA content in RBC-membrane increases membrane fluidity, and hence RBC-filterability, on which blood viscosity is partially dependent.
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid, blood viscosity, RBC-filterability, epidemiology, fish oil
Abstract: Red cell deformability was measured in 13 patients with stable angina controlled by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and 13 controls. Filtration of leucocyte-poor blood was carried out by a modification of the Reid-Dormandy method at 37°C. No difference was found between the flow rates for blood anticoagulated with heparin, defibrinated blood or washed cells resuspended in serum when the two groups were compared. There is no evidence for impaired red cell deformability in these patients with stable angina.
Abstract: Using the spin-label method, we have compared the physical state of the human platelet membrane before and after thrombin-induced aggregation. In its resting state this membrane is rigid and highly organized. After aggregation, its ordering decreases. This phenomenon is dose dependent and reaches its maximum with about 0.5 U/ml of thrombin for 3.109 platelets per ml. Preliminary results obtained on genetic diseases (Glanzman thrombasthenia and Gray platelets syndrome) indicate that this change is independent from the aggregation phenomenon itself. In thromboembolic states (thrombocytemia, diabetes) the membrane molecular structure of platelets at rest seems to be similar to that of…activated normal platelets.
Abstract: Concepts originally introduced in 1970 (1), concerning the rotational “viscosity vectors”, are further developed: as is the concept of “effective molecular mass” (for viscosity). This is used first to calculate “molar” viscosities at three temperatures for a sucrose concentration of 60% in water. These differ from published experimental values by about 1%. Adjustments of the “effective” molecular mass to give agreement at all concentrations up to 60%, are made on a geometrical empirical basis. A tentative viscosity-concentration table is presented for 20°, 25° and 37°C., for concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% w/w. Finally, a few significant plasma…and whole-blood viscosity-values are chosen to illustrate how the field of clinical results can be mapped against an aqueous-sucrose background.
Keywords: Viscosity, sucrose, water, ranges in haemorheology
Abstract: Under specific hemorheologic and hemostasiologic conditions (Pcath 1200 mmHg, hematocrit value lesser than 30%, adequate heparinisation) it is possible to archieve a sufficient flow rate through the narrow lumen (0.5 mmØ) of the dilatation catheter (DC) during PTCA to exert a myocardial protective effect of the myocardium distal to the balloon. This prevents hemodynamic deterioration and should permit longer duration of balloon inflation.
Keywords: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, in vitro and in vivo studies, intracoronary perfusion, myocardial protective effect