Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 3, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: A theoretical investigation of ultrafiltration through hollow fibers used in artificial kidney applications is presented. The mass transfer through the semipermeable membranes is based on Starling’s hypothesis. The rheological problem is treated by regarding the blood as a multiple-structured fluid consisting of a Casson fluid and a surrounding cell-free plasma layer. The present model takes into account the effect of concentration polarization of plasma proteins at the fiber walls. In addition to the implicit character of the viscosity law, a difficulty arises from the fact that the viscosity of the blood plasma, which depends on the local plasma protein concentration,…varies along the axis of the fiber and is not known a priori. The numerical solution of the theoretical model yields the total filtration rate as well as local quantities like the transmembrane fluid velocity and the protein concentration as functions of the fiber characteristics and transmembrane pressure drop. A particular application of the present model is the simulation of hemodilution and its effect on the ultrafiltration efficiency of the hollow fibers.
Keywords: hemofiltration, hemorheology, artificial kidney, non-Newtonian fluid, permeability, hemodynamic model
Abstract: Twenty one ambulatory patients with essential hypertension (10 men, 11 women), 50.6±10.5 years old, had blood pressures of 167.5±17.l mmHg systolic and 106.2±9.9 mmHg diastolic. Most of the patients were under treatment and target organ involvement was not significant. The following parameters were measured on a sample of venous blood: haemoglobin, haematocrit, P50 standard, carboxyemoglobin, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and blood filterability rate. The hypertensives were significantly different from a group of controls, in having an increase in 2,3-DPG (hypertensives, 18,5±3.32 µmoles/gHb; controls 12.01±1.32 µmoles/gHb; p < 0.01) and a lower filterability rate (11.41±1.31 µl.sec−1 for hypertensives, 15.49±1.65 µl.sec−l…for controls, p < 0.01). The results suggest an increased rigidity of the blood cells which may have consequence on microcirculation and oxygen delivery to tissues. However, no significant difference in P50 standard was observed between hypertensives and controls.
Keywords: blood filterability, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, P50 standard, human arterial hypertension
Abstract: Passability of rabbit red cells through micropores (5 and 3 µm in diameter) was markedly reduced by two weeks of cholesterol feeding. In vitamin E-nicotinate administered rabbits, the pore passage times of red cells became shorter in spite of the cholesterol feeding, suggesting a positive effect of vitamin E-nicotinate on the red cell deformability impaired by hypercholesterolemia. Vitamin E-nicotinate probably modifies the interaction between red cells and plasma cholesterol.
Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin E, red cell deformability
Abstract: A large scale study of the erythrocyte deformability in diabetes is presented. The initial filtration flow rate method is used on diluted (white blood cells reduced) RBC suspensions. The rigidity index thus obtained, IR, is largely insensitive to the filter plugging. A significant increase of IR is observed for diabetic patients (p < 0.001). This difference is probably (p < 0.05) higher for insulin dependent diabetes than for non insulin diabetes patients. A low significance (p < 0.05) negative correlation between IR and the patient’s hematocrit has been observed. No correlation has been found between the RBC rigidity increase and…the following parameters: – plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol. – glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), MVC, CCMH and WBC count. – presence of microangiopathic complications. plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol. glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), MVC, CCMH and WBC count. presence of microangiopathic complications.
Abstract: In order to estimate the reliability and validity of PMV the rheological behaviour of packed RBC suspensions ascertained by PMV was correlated to the shear stress - shear rate relationship measured by rotational viscometry. The filtrometer as developed by TEITEL & Mussler was used. 10 samples of normal RBC and 10 samples of RBC altered by hypertonicity or diarnide treatment were examined in all of four channels of the filtrometer. Viscometry was performed in the DEER-rheometer. Above a shear stress of about 1 Pa PMV was found to be an appropriate tool to assess the viscous behaviour of RBC suspensions:…correlation coefficients between FPR and apparent fluidity varied from 0.92 to 0.95 and the variation coefficient ranged around 10%. Below 15% of the full range of pressures analyzed (p=38 Pa) PMV does not significantly reflect the apparent viscosity of the sample, and the variation coefficient is high (>20%).
Keywords: Deformability, filtration, fluidity, red blood cells, viscometry
Abstract: The flexibility of human erythrocytes is caused by three properties: membrane flexibility, fluidity of the interior of the cells and a surplus of cell surface area versus cell volume due to the biconcave form. These factors permit them to assume any desired shape without changing their volume. If the fluidity of the cell interior or the surplus of cell surface is reduced, the “conformation instability” of the erythrocyte will decrease. In this overview the connection between rigidity and accelerated destruction of the erythrocytes in congenital hemolytic anemias will be discussed. Although alterations of rheological properties of the erythrocytes are due…to different reasons, the mechanism of hemolysis is identical in nearly all congenital hemolytic anemias. The rigid cells are sequestered in the spleen, because of their inability to pass the small slits between the adventitial cells of the venous sinuses. After splenectomy the survival time of erythrocytes increases because the rigid cells no longer are sequestered at the same rate by the rest of the reticuloendothelial system.