Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 33, issue 2
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Understanding the fracture mechanics of bone is very important in both the medical and bioengineering field. Bone is a hierarchical natural composite material of nanoscale collagen fibers and inorganic material. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates and presents the fracture toughness of bovine cortical bone by using elastic plastic fracture mechanics. METHODS: The J -integral was used as a parameter to calculate the energies utilized in both elastic deformation (J el ) and plastic deformation (J pl ) of the hipbone fracture. Twenty four different types of specimens, i.e. longitudinal compact tension (CT) specimens, transverse CT specimens,…and also rectangular unnotched specimens for tension in longitudinal and transverse orientation, were cut from the bovine hip bone of the middle diaphysis. All CT specimens were prepared according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1820 standard and were tested at room temperature. RESULTS: The results showed that the average total J -integral in transverse CT fracture specimens is 26% greater than that of longitudinal CT fracture specimens. For longitudinal-fractured and transverse-fractured cortical specimens, the energy used in the elastic deformation was found to be 2.8–3 times less than the energy used in the plastic deformation. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the overall fracture toughness measured using the J -integral is significantly higher than the toughness calculated by the stress intensity factor. Therefore, J -integral should be employ to compute the fracture toughness of cortical bone.
Keywords: Fracture toughness, J-integral, bovine hip bone, compact tension specimen
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the masticatory cycle, loads of different intensities and directions are received by the dental structures and/or implants, which can cause micromovements at the junction between the abutment and implant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the behavior of three different implant connections subjected to different load values using a digital radiography system. Additionally, the torque values for removing the abutment screws were also measured and compared. METHODS: Ninety sets of implant and abutment (IA) were used, divided into three groups according to the type of connection (n = 30…per group): EH group, external hexagon type connection; IH group, internal hexagon connection; and, MT group, Morse taper connection. RESULTS: MT group showed the better vertical misfit behavior at the three intensity of load applied, in comparison with EH and IH groups. In the analysis of torque maintenance (detorque test), MT group showed higher values of detorque when compared with the measured values of EH and IH groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The IA sets of EH and IH groups showed a microgap in all levels of applied loads, unlike the MT group this event was not observed. In the detorque test, MT group increase in the torque values when compared to the initial torque applied, unlike EH and IH groups showed a decrease in the initially torque applied in all conditions tested. A positive correlation was detected between the misfit and detorque values.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Portable blood glucose meters are the main method for detecting the blood glucose status of clinical patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of detecting blood glucose in haemodialysis patients by sampling two blood glucose meters through the haemodialysis line. METHODS: Convenient sampling was used to select 80 patients with maintenance haemodialysis. The patients were sampled through the arterial end of the haemodialysis line within three minutes of being put on the machine. One specimen was tested by glycemeter1, which can identify the type of blood in the arteries and veins, and glycemeter2, which can only…detect blood glucose in the capillaries for bedside blood glucose testing. The other specimen was sent to the laboratory biochemical analyser for blood glucose testing. RESULTS: When the blood glucose value of the first blood glucose meter (No. 1) was compared with the laboratory biochemical analyser, the correlation coefficient was r = 0.805 (p < 0.05), the out of value of the first blood glucose meter accounted for 4.4%, and the consistency reached 95% (p < 0.05). When the blood glucose value of the second blood glucose meter (No. 2) was compared with the laboratory biochemical analyser, the correlation coefficient was r = 0.800 (p < 0.05), the out of value of the second blood glucose meter accounted for 4.4%, and the consistency reached 95% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with maintenance haemodialysis, the blood glucose values detected by the two bedside blood glucose meters using arteriovenous mixed blood in the pipeline do not affect the accuracy and can respond more realistically.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics provides a new method for the study of the blood flow characteristics of the formation and development of intracranial aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To compare blood flow characteristics between the healthy internal carotid artery and normal intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: The internal carotid arteries were simulated to obtain hemodynamic parameters in one patient. RESULTS: The internal carotid artery associated with aneurysm presents low wall shear stress, high oscillatory shear index, and high particle retention time compared with the normal internal carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in blood flow between the…normal internal carotid artery and intracranial aneurysm. The vortex of the aneurysm will produce turbulence, indicating that it is unstable, which results in the growth and rupture of the aneurysm.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Impaired fracture healing results in extensive and prolonged disability and long-term pain. Previous studies reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) was expressed during fracture healing and that anti-NGF antibody improves physical activity associate with facture pain. However, NGF expression levels in delayed or non-union are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We compared chronological changes in NGF in the callus of young mice after femur fracture with those in aged mice after femur fracture as a model of bone fracture in the elderly. METHODS: We used young (age 8 weeks) and aged (age 10 months) male C57BL/6J…mice. A fracture was generated in the femur. At 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after creation of a fracture, mRNA expression levels of Col2a1, Col10a1, NGF were evaluated using quantitative PCR. We examined NGF protein expression levels and localization in the callus at day 14 using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Expression of NGF in the callus after femur fracture in aged mice was significantly greater than that in young mice at days 5, 7, 10, 17, and 21 days. NGF protein levels in the callus of aged mice were also significantly higher than that in young mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that NGF was heavily expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes in the callus in aged mice. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that delayed Col2a1 and Col10a1 expression reflects delayed chondrocyte formation and delayed chondrocyte maturation in aged mice and that higher NGF expression in aged mice at day 14 may be associated with the presence of remaining hypertrophic chondrocytes in callus with delaying endochondral ossification.
Keywords: Nerve growth factor, fracture, delayed union
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The biologic scaffolds derived from decellularized tissues and organs have been successfully developed in a variety of preclinical and/or clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: The new decellularized liver-regenerative 3D printing biomaterials were designed and prepared for cell-based liver therapies. METHODS: An extraction process was employed to remove the tissue and cellular molecules from porcine liver via pretreatment of supercritical fluid of carbon dioxide (ScCO2 ). Varying porosities of the decellularized liver tissues were created using papain-containing reagent treatments after ScCO2 . RESULTS: The resulting liver-regenerative 3D printing biomaterials of decellularized liver collagen scaffolds were characterized…by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The decellularized liver collagen scaffolds with good thermal stability (>150 °C) were obtained and employed as liver-regenerative 3D printing biomaterials for cell-based liver therapies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: At present, surgical resection and chemotherapy are still the main treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers, but the curative effect and survival rate are not ideal. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to prepare a carrier with low toxicity, high biocompatibility and targeted transport for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: CdSe quantum dots (QDs) modified with oleic acid were synthesized. Then hydrophobic CdSe QDs and hydrophilic super-paramagnetic Fe3 O4 particles were encapsulated into different layers of liposomes to form magnetic fluorescent liposomes (MFLs). MFLs in the aqueous would quickly drift towards the…external magnet and the entire process was clearly observed with fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence spectra revealed that the fluorescence properties of MFLs were similar to that of CdSe QDs. RESULTS: QDs had an average size of 3.32 nm with good fluorescence properties. The size of MFLs was about 100 nm (transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the average size of MFLs was about 82.8 nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) detection showed 111.9 nm). After being cultured with MFLs for 8 h, HepG2 cells were labeled by MFLs, and good fluorescence images were obtained. MTT analysis also expressed their good biocompatibility. CONCLUSION: The prepared MFLs had multi-function and could be used as ideal drug carriers.