Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 30, issue 3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. It most prominently influences the skeletal, cardiovascular, and ocular systems, but all fibrous connective tissue throughout the body can be affected as well. Objective: This study aims to investigate a realistic three-dimensional model of an aorta of a specific patient suffering from MFS by considering elastic and hyperelastic materials for the tissue using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Methods: Isotropic linear elastic and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic assumptions are implemented. Linear and nonlinear mechanical properties of the aneurysmal MFS aortic tissue are derived from an uniaxial experimental test.…Results: Vortex generation in the vicinity of the aneurysm region in both elastic and hyperelastic models and the maximum blood velocity at peak flow time is calculated as 0.517 and 0.533 m/s for the two materials, respectively. The blood pressure is not significantly different between the two models (±8 Pa) and the blood pressure difference between the points in the horizontal plane of the aneurysm region is obtained as ±10 Pa for both models. The maximum von Mises stress for the hyperelastic model (2.19 MPa) is 27% more than the elastic one (1.72 MPa) and takes place at the inner curvature and upper part of the aorta and somehow far from the aneurysm region. The wall shear stress (WSS) is also considered for the elastic and hyperelastic assumptions, which is 36.7 Pa for both elastic and hyperelastic models. Conclusion: The aneurysm region in the MFS affects the blood flow and causes the vortex to be generated which consequently affects the blood flow in the downstream by adding some perturbations to the blood flow. The WSS is obtained to be lower in the aneurysm region compared to other regions which indicated vascular remodeling.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human beings regularly walk over even and uneven surfaces during their daily activities. A human being with lower limb disability needs an exoskeleton to walk independently. However, walking surface irregularities increase the risk of falling of exoskeleton users. This falling tendency can be minimized by balancing the exoskeleton on irregular surface profiles against the gait cycle variation. Gait variation is studied using quality EMG signals obtained from the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscle activity during uneven surface walking. OBJECTIVE: The present study compares the activity of hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles during walking on a treadmill, utilizing both even…and uneven planes. METHODS: Integrated electromyography signals from eight healthy male subjects are collected while walking on a treadmill, even and uneven planes. Muscle activity variation on these planes is studied using two-way ANOVA with replications. RESULTS: The results show that hamstring muscle activity registers a sound variation in swing phase but has no variation in stance phase over all three planes, whereas gastrocnemius muscle activity changes between swing and stance phases over even and uneven planes during forward walking. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrate that the gait cycle variation depends on surface irregularities which indicates the importance of surface consideration.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine solutions and their inactivating agents on the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). One hundred fifty root slices were prepared and their root canal spaces were enlarged using diamond burs. MTA was prepared and compacted to root canal spaces. The samples were randomly separated to 4 groups that would be immersed into the selected solutions (5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl and sodium thiosulfate, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 2% CHX and a mixture of Tween 80 and 0.3% L-alfa-lecithin) and a control group (n…= 30). Push-out bond strength of each specimen was tested with universal testing machine. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. There were no significant differences between the push-out bond strength values of the irrigation groups and the control group. A significant difference was found between the push-out bond strength values of NaOCl-Sodium thiosulfate and CHX-L-alpha-lecithin groups. Contact with NaOCl and its neutralizing agent with MTA after 10 minutes of setting period increased the push-out bond strength of MTA. On the other hand, any contact with CHX alone or with subsequent application using L-alfa-lecithin should be avoided since that might decrease the push-out bond strength of freshly mixed MTA.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Bone remodeling is mediated by the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, so does osteoinduction triggered by calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials. This study aims to investigate the role and function of osteoclasts in ectopic bone formation induced by CaP biomaterials. METHODS: Four kinds of mice, two outbred mouse strains (KM and ICR) and two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BALB/c), were chosen for the experiments. The hydroxyapatite/𝛽-tricalcium phosphate (HA/𝛽-TCP) biomaterials were implanted into the bilateral thigh muscle of each mouse, and then all mice ran on the treadmill to accelerate the ectopic bone formation. Five and ten weeks…later, five mice in each group were euthanized and the samples were harvested for electron microscope scanning or histological identification: hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Masson-trichrome and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, respectively. The inflammation indexes, angiogenesis, and osteogenic ability were compared among the four kinds of mice, and the role of osteoclasts was analyzed based on this evidence. RESULTS: The number of multinucleated cells, the number of new blood vessels, and the area percentage of new bone tissues were higher in outbred mouse strains than in inbred mouse strains; and there were more TRAP-positive cells in the outbred mouse strains group. We believe that the monocytes from the peripheral blood could migrate into new bone tissues to form osteoclasts. CONCLUSION: Bone induction could be triggered by CaP biomaterials in mice, and osteoclasts could maintain the dynamic balance between bone resorption and remodeling, and induce the production of new bone marrow tissues.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Breakage of joint arthroplasty components are rare, yet during an implant retrieval program we found several cases. OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the components to determine the causes and mechanisms of breakage of these implants. METHODS: From our collection of 849 retrievals we selected 682 cases with metal parts (503 hip, 79 knee arthroplasties) and identified fractured components: seven hip resurfacing implants, five total hip replacement stems, one monopolar femoral head, and one modular revision femoral stem from. Implants were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy; metallographic sections were prepared and samples of…periprosthetic tissues underwent microscopic examination. RESULTS: In the resurfacing components breakage occurred in small stems placed in the femoral neck due to necrosis of femoral heads, with no metal flaws detected. Fatigue breakage of femoral stems was caused by presence of material flaws in the CoCrMo alloy, and corrosion. The monopolar head failed in fatigue fracture mechanism, breakage was initiated in an undercut near the taper connection for femoral component. The modular stem from Ti alloy sustained fatigue fracture induced by corrosion caused by debris from previously revised stem; no material flaws were detected in this sample. In most cases periprosthetic tissues had a morphology typical for aseptic loosening. CONCLUSIONS: In our series failure was caused by material flaws, presence of stress raisers and localized corrosion. Our findings indicate that sharp edges and other features which can act as stress raisers should be avoided in newly designed implants. Corrosion induced fracture of the modular Ti stem indicates the need for a detailed debridement of periprosthetic tissues during revision arthroplasties.
Keywords: Retrieval analysis, component breakage, hip arthroplasty
Abstract: The utilization of Asymmetric stent for recovering atherosclerotic diseases, particularly non-symmetric obstruction, is a quite challenging breakthrough treatment. In terms of eccentric plaque, the non-uniform stiffness of arterial layer causes the increasingly complex issues of vulnerability. This study investigated the vulnerability of the interaction between the Asymmetric stent and the surrounding arterial layer using structural transient dynamic analysis in ANSYS. Four combinations of stent deployment, i.e. the Sinusoidal stent expanded by the offset balloon, the Sinusoidal stent expanded by the ordinary cylindrical balloon, the Asymmetric stent expanded by the offset balloon, and the Asymmetric stent expanded by the ordinary cylindrical…balloon, are generated for this comparative study. Multilayer material properties from recent in vitro experiments are adopted for the surrounding arterial layer, such as a fibrous cap, lipid core, diseased-healthy intima, and diseased-healthy media. In order to address plaque vulnerability, the Cauchy stresses and Hencky strains are used for stress measure because of convenience in comparison with the uniaxial/biaxial tension test data. The location-specific threshold value from the diseased human carotid artery is adopted for rupture criteria. The simulation indicated that as regards the eccentric plaque, the plaque vulnerability is caused by the plaque shape and components rather than caused by the geometrical structure of the stent or balloon expansion method. Nevertheless, the non-symmetric inflation of balloon, which leads against the plaque, contributed to an increase in the vulnerability of fibrous cap of fibroatheroma plaque.
Keywords: Tissue rupture, asymmetric, eccentricity, carotid artery stenting, FEM
Abstract: Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been studied extensively due to its bioactivity and biodegradability. CPC is typically made by a combination of multiple calcium phosphates that form a paste that sets and hardens in the body after being combined with either water or an aqueous solution. It is highly moldable and easily manipulated, and CPCs possess osteoconductive properties. Due to these characteristics, CPCs offer great promise in bone grafting applications. CPC combined with drugs has a great potential as drug delivery system and has been studied extensively. In this review we have focused on Bisphosphonate-CPC drug delivery system. In addition,…we introduce and discuss the potential of studying other bisphosphonates.
Keywords: Bisphosphonates, calcium phosphate cement (CPC), drug delivery, bone tissue engineering
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Probing to assess conditions of hip capsule and acetabular labrum is performed by “surgeons’ feeling”. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the resistance of the labrum and the hip capsule quantitatively while they were pulled with a probing device. METHODS: With the probing device in which a strain gauge was embedded, ten fresh frozen specimens of the pelvis and proximal femur were measured in each three surgical steps, (1) closed, (2) open, (3) closured for the capsule, and (1) intact, (2) cut, (3) repaired for the labrum. RESULTS: The mean highest resistance levels for the capsule…were 9.8 N at the closed capsule, 4.1 N at the open capsule, and 8.5 N at the closured capsule. The values at the three phases were statistically significant. The mean highest resistance levels for the hip labrum were 8.2 N at the labrum intact, 4.0 N at the labrum cut, and 7.9 N at the labrum repair. The values at the three phases were also statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Since the quantitatively measured values in each three steps were significantly different, the values with the probing device might be useful to evaluate whether the lesion of the soft tissue exists and whether some surgical intervention works well.
Keywords: Hip labrum, resistance of soft tissue, probing sensor device, hip capsule
Abstract: Magnesium has attracted a lot of attention as a new class of biodegradable material. The surface properties of magnesium in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated in the current research work. Cast magnesium samples with different surface characteristics were prepared which were then placed in SBF for 2, 4 and 8 days. This led to the formation of hydroxylapatite coating on their surfaces. The solution was changed at regular intervals to maintain a pH of 7.6. Other Mg samples were anodized at 40 V and 60 V to create a uniform layer of oxide on them and then their activity in SBF…was compared with the casted samples of Mg. It was found that corrosion rate varies as the immersion time increases. Magnesium undergoes localized corrosion with pits and cracks forming on the surface of the samples. This was due to the aggressive corrosive nature of SBF.
Keywords: Magnesium, hydroxyapatite (HA), simulated body fluid (SBF), anodization, Mg(OH)2