Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 29, issue 2
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Objective: To observe the short-term efficacy of Pipeline embolization divice (PED) for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. Methods: The clinical data of 29 consecutive patients with 32 intracranial aneurysms treated with PED between April 2015 to September 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 3 small aneurysm, 15 large aneurysms, 8 giant aneurysms, 5 fusiform ayneurysms and 1 recidivation. The vessels include 25 anterior circulation and 4 posterior circulation. Results: We treated 31 aneurysms with 30 PEDs and all of the stents were implanted successfully. 1 case of single aneurysm was multiple divices implanted and 1 case…of 3 aneurysms were treated by single PED. 12 of the 29 patients were implanted PED only, 17 were implanted PED with coils, 2 underwent balloon remodeling after the PED implanted. The ostia of 19 ophthalmic arteries, 10 posterior communicating arteries, 4 posterior inferior cerebellar arteries and 1 anterior cerebral artery were covered by PED during procedures; 1 ophthalmic arteries and 1 posterior communicating artery disappeared, no branch vessels occlusion and parent artery stenosis occurred.Hemorrhagic complacations occurred in 2 patients, 2 hours and 5 days after procedure respectively. Radiographic follow-up examnations were carried out in 24 patients and revealed complete occlusion in 21 patients, uncomplete occlusion in 3 patients. No neurological injure occurred in 27 patients who received a clinical follow-up. Conclusion: PED provide a safe and effective methord for the treatment of intracranial complex aneurysms like wide-neck aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms, giant aneurysms in low risk of procedural complications and high rates of aneurysm occlusion.
Abstract: Objective: Understanding the biomechanical properties of hernia meshes is essential in facilitating their selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical compatibility of hernia meshes and human abdominal fascia and assess their applicability in hernia repair. Methods: Uniaxial tensile tests were performed. A total of eight hernia meshes were tested – three standard meshes (Surgimesh® , Surgipro™, TecnoMesh® ) and five light-weight meshes (Optilene® , TiO2 Mesh™, Parietex™, Vypro™ II, Ultrapro™). Results: The secant modulus at 5% strain and the level of orthotropy (the ratio between tensile stress in the longitudinal and the…transversal direction) at 5% strain were calculated from the stress–stretch ratio curves. The impact of pore size and thickness on the elastic properties of these meshes was determined. The relationships between density and elasticity as well as between elasticity and the strain developed at 16 N/cm load were presented. The resulting mechanical properties of meshes were compared to the elasticity, orthotropy and deformability of human abdominal fascia. Conclusions: Vypro™ II and Parietex™ brands display properties similar to those of fascia in both directions. The TiO2 Mesh™ and Ultrapro™ display deformability close to the deformability at 16 N/cm of the fascia transversalis. Only the Vypro™ II brand’s orthotropy is similar to that of fascia.
Keywords: Hernia meshes, human abdominal fascia, mechanical behavior, structural characterization
Abstract: Background: Polycaprolactone (PCL)-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds fabricated using Melt-Stretching and Compression Molding (MSCM) can release calcium and phosphate ions, which are essential for bone formation. Objective: Responses of the osteoblasts seeded on three groups of scaffolds including group A; PCL-20% BCP (%wt), group B; PCL-30% BCP and group C (control); pure PCL (100% PCL) were evaluated. Methods: The cell-scaffold constructs were made by seeding osteoblast cell lines at 1 × 10 5 cells/scaffold. The constructs of each group were divided for culturing in proliferation medium (PR) and osteogenic induction…medium (OS) for 30 days. Results: The cells attached and grew on the scaffolds of all groups. The cell number and the differentiation markers of groups A and B were remarkably higher than those of group C over the observation periods. Slow proliferation of the cells of group A and B in the PR medium in the first 7 days corresponded to the maximum increases in alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP). The maximum levels of ALP of those groups in the OS medium were not detected until day 14. The levels of osteocalcin of those groups were not statistically different when cultured in both mediums. Conclusions: The MSCM scaffolds are suitable for supporting attachment and growth of the osteoblasts. Additional BCP into the PCL-based scaffolds accelerate early differentiation of the cells in the constructs even without osteogenic-inductive condition.
Keywords: Scaffold, polycaprolactone, biphasic calcium phosphate, calcium ion, phosphate ion
Abstract: This paper describes the development of mitoxantrone-loaded PEGylated graphene oxide/magnetite nanoparticles (PEG-GO/Fe3 O4 -MTX), and investigation of its preliminary drug delivery performance. For this, the GO was synthesized through oxidizing graphite powder, and subsequently carboxylated using a substitution nucleophilic reaction. The carboxylated GO (GO-COOH) was then conjugated with amine end-caped PEG chains by Steglich esterification. Afterward, GO-PEG/Fe3 O4 nanocomposite was synthesized through the anchoring of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles onto the surface of GO-PEG during the sonication. The biocompatibility and MTX-loading capacity of the synthesized GO-PEG/Fe3 O4 nanocomposite were evaluated. The pH dependent drug release behavior and cytotoxicity…effect of the MTX-loaded GO-PEG/Fe3 O4 nanocomposite were also studied. According to biocompatibility, pH dependent drug release behavior as well as superior physicochemical and biological characteristics of graphene and magnetite nanoparticles, it is expected that the GO-PEG/Fe3 O4 nanocomposite may be applied as de novo drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer therapy using both chemo- and photothermal therapy approaches.
Keywords: Graphene oxide, magnetite nanoparticles, mitoxantrone, cancer chemotherapy
Abstract: The aim of this study is to produce the smart hydrogel to use insulin release for human body. p(HEMA-co-Eudragit L-100) hydrogels containing different ratios of 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and Eudragait L-100 were synthesized by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross linker. The structures of hydrogels produced were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. In this way, optimum synthesis conditions were determined for p(HEMA-co-Eudragit L-100) hydrogels by using Taguchi method as an optimization method. The gelling percentages of all hydrogels were calculated. After all,…the swelling behaviors (%) of hydrogels were investigated in range of various times (1–44 hrs), temperatures (20–50°C) and pH (2–12) and the optimum process conditions in the production of hydrogels were determined. Consequently, the optimum time, temperature and pH were 24 hours, 37°C and 7, respectively. Thus, this hydrogel could be evaluated in insulin release for diabetes treatment and drug industry.
Abstract: Background: Recently, polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified gold nanoparticles have been studied to maintaining long-term stability in biological fluids. Its biodistribution was also reported, however, comparison of bare gold nanoparticles and PEGylated gold nanoparticles with equal particle size is not sufficient. Objective: We prepared bare gold nanoparticles and PEGylated gold nanoparticles with diameters of 20-30-nm or 50-nm to avoid the influence of particle diameter, and studied their biodistribution in the mouse. Methods: Gold concentrations in brain, heart, lungs, liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, blood, urine, and feces were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 18,…24, and 48 h after administration of gold nanoparticles using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Results: At 48 h after intravenous administration, accumulation in the liver and spleen was significantly reduced by PEGylation, and the gold amounts of PEGylated gold nanoparticles with diameters of 20-30 nm and 50-nm in the brain were 3.6 times and 2.7 times higher than those of bare gold nanoparticles, respectively. Conclusions: These results indicated that the usefulness of PEGylated gold nanoparticles with small particle size for a drug carrier.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles with a diameter of 100–150 nm prepared using poly(lactide-co -glycolide) can be delivered to hair follicles. Moreover, it was shown that drug release from nanoparticles was prolonged by using poly(L-lactide-co -glycolide) (PLLGA). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prepared minoxidil-encapsulated PLLGA nanoparticles and accumulate minoxidil in hair follicles utilizing its drug delivery properties for effective treatment of male and female androgenetic alopecia. METHODS: Minoxidil-encapsulated PLLGA nanoparticles were prepared using W/O/W solvent evaporation and sonication, and the ability of PLLGA nanoparticles to deliver to hair follicles was evaluated by in vivo transdermal delivery study…using C3H/He mice and tape stripping and cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy. RESULTS: Eight hours after administration of samples, minoxidil-encapsulated PLLGA nanoparticles delivered 3.1 times more minoxidil in stratum corneum and 2.5 times more in hair follicles r compared to minoxidil aqueous solution. In addition, we found that 4.8% of the dose of minoxidil-encapsulated PLLGA nanoparticles were delivered to the hair follicles. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was shown that nanoparticulation using PLLGA7510 suppressed minoxidil release from nanoparticles and improved drug delivery amount to hair follicles.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Alveolar cleft repair is an important step in the sequence of treatments for cleft lip and palate. Intrinsically osteoinductive materials have been the subject of research interest. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the use of osteoinductive biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics to repair alveolar cleft defects in dogs. METHODS: We prepared two kinds of BCP ceramic with different physical characteristics: osteoinductive BCP (OBCP) and non-osteoinductive BCP (NBCP). Bilateral alveolar cleft models were surgically established in dogs. On one side, OBCP was implanted in the defect; on the opposite side NBCP was…implanted as a control. The materials were also implanted in the femoral muscles to test their properties at non-osseous sites. The osteogenic ability of materials was evaluated with imaging, spiral CT, histology and fluorescent dye tests. RESULTS: At the muscular implantation sites, new bone formed in all of the OBCP samples, but none in the NBCP samples. Imaging and spiral CT revealed good appearance and continuity of the alveolar cleft postoeration, with normal eruption of the bilateral permanent teeth in the groups. Histological and fluorescent dye testing revealed new bone formation in both groups in situ . However, earlier osteogenesis initiation and bone remodeling were superior with OBCP. Osteogenic process in the intramuscular samples with OBCP was similar to that seen in situ . CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that osteoinductive biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (OBCP) have superior characteristics in alveolar cleft repair compared with non-osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics (NBCP).
Abstract: Imbalance crosslink density and polymer concentration gradient is formed within the traditional alginate hydrogel using calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent in external gelation for instantaneously process. In this studying, type I collagen (Col I) blended calcium salt form of poly(γ -glutamic acid) (γ CaPGA) was mixing with RGD-modified alginate with convenient gelation process and suitable for practical use. The hydrophilicity of the resulting hydrogels was evaluated through swelling tests, water retention capacity tests, and water vapor permeation tests. Mineralization was qualitatively evaluated by alizarin red dyeing at day 14, verifying the deposition of calcium. The in vitro osteogenic…differentiation is monitored by determining the early and late osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) markers with MG63 cells. Obtained results demonstrated that no extremely changes in mechanical properties. After 14 days of culture, hydrogels significantly stimulated OCN/OPN gene expressions and MG63 cell proliferation. Unusually, γ CaPGA with RGD-modified alginate appeared better calcium deposition in 14 days than the other. However, addition of Col I can counterpoise RGD effect in blood coagulation and platelet adhesion made the hydrogel more flexibility and selectively in use. This studying provided that non-covalently crosslinked hydrogel by γ CaPGA with alginate can be upgrading by RGD and Col I in water uptake capability, obviously effective for MG63 cells and are remarkably biocompatible and exhibited no cytotoxicity. Moreover, results also displayed the injectable process without complicated procedure, have high cost/performance ratio and have great potential for bone regeneration.
Keywords: Injectable, type I collagen, calcium salt form of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γCaPGA), sodium alginate, MG63 cells
Abstract: Background: Biocompatibility and degradation of poly ε -caprolactone (PCL)-Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) scaffolds fabricated by the “Melt Stretching and Compression Molding (MSCM)” technique were evaluated in rat models. Objectives: Degradation behaviors and histological biocompatibility of the PCL-20% BCP MSCM scaffolds and compare with those of PCL-20% β -tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds commercially fabricated by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) were evaluated. Methods: The study groups included Group A: PCL-20% BCP MSCM scaffolds and Group B: PCL-20% TCP FDM scaffolds, which were implanted subcutaneously in twelve male Wistar rats. On day 14, 30, 60 and 90, dimensional changes…of the scaffolds and their surrounding histological features were assessed using Micro-Computed Tomography (μ -CT) and histological analysis. Changes of their molecular weight were assessed using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Results: Formation of collagen and new blood vessels throughout the scaffolds of both groups increased with time with low degrees of inflammation. The μ -CT and GPC analysis demonstrated that the scaffolds of both groups degraded with time, but, their molecular weight slightly changed over the observation periods. All results of both groups were not significantly different. Conclusions: The PCL-20% BCP MSCM scaffolds were biocompatible and biodegradable in vivo. Their properties were comparable to those of the commercial PCL-20% TCP scaffolds.