Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 24, issue 1
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Segmenting lung fields from CT (Computed Tomography) scans is an important task for the analysis, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Although many segmentation methods have been presented, some new automatic segmentation methods for the lung fields are still proposed for the CT scans. This paper proposes a novel segmentation method for lung fields by using morphological closing operations and thresholding for normal lungs in CT scans. Additionally, under the guidance of anatomic information, the lung fields could be well segmented with lobar fissure, thin junction between the left/right lung fields, indentation of the blood vessels and bronchi-walls. This experiment…is performed by employing the thoracic CT scans datasets, and it is proved to be an effective method.
Abstract: Alterations of normal mitral valve (MV) function lead to mitral insufficiency, i.e., mitral regurgitation (MR). Mitral repair is the most popular and most efficient surgical intervention for MR treatment. An annuloplasty ring is implanted following complex reconstructive MV repairs to prevent potential reoccurrence of MR. We have developed a novel finite element (FE)-based simulation protocol to perform patient-specific virtual ring annuloplasty following the standard clinical guideline procedure. A virtual MV was created using 3D echocardiographic data in a patient with mitral annular dilation. Proper type and size of the ring were determined in consideration of the MV apparatus geometry. The…ring was positioned over the patient MV model and annuloplasty was simulated. Dynamic simulation of MV function across the complete cardiac cycle was performed. Virtual patient-specific annuloplasty simulation well demonstrated morphologic information of the MV apparatus before and after ring implantation. Dynamic simulation of MV function following ring annuloplasty demonstrated markedly reduced stress distribution across the MV leaflets and annulus as well as restored leaflet coaptation compared to pre-annuloplasty. This novel FE-based patient-specific MV repair simulation technique provides quantitative information of functional improvement following ring annuloplasty. Virtual MV repair strategy may effectively evaluate and predict interventional treatment for MV pathology.
Keywords: Mitral valve, annuloplasty, mitral repair, patient-specific, finite element
Abstract: Varieties of neurophysiological measures have been utilized in visual attention studies. The linear parameters like power spectrum are the most commonly used features in the existing studies. In this paper, however, nonlinear parameters including approximate entropy, sample entropy and multiscale entropy were tested. All subjects were instructed to perform tasks with three different attention levels (i.e. attention, no attention and rest) in two experiments. Nonlinear features were extracted from the EEG signals. Then, statistical analyses and classification with support vector machine (SVM) were performed. A comparison between the classification results based on the linear feature / and the sample entropy…was performed for further analysis. The results suggest that sample entropy stands out in the dynamical parameters with the accuracies of 76.19% and 85.24% in recognition of three levels of attention for the two experiments respectively. And the further comparison shows that the sample entropy performs even better than the / power ratio. It is suggested that nonlinear dynamical parameters may be indispensable for a robust attention recognition system.
Abstract: The classification of EEG tasks has drawn much attention in recent years. In this paper, a novel classification model based on independent component analysis (ICA) and Extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed to detect lying. Firstly, ICA and its topography information were used to automatically identify the P300 ICs. Then, time and frequency-domain features were extracted from the reconstructed P3 waveforms. Finally, two classes of feature samples were used to train ELM, Back-propagation network (BPNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for comparison. The optimal number of P3 ICs and the values of classifier parameter were optimized by the cross-validation…procedures. Experimental results show that the presented method (ICA_ELM) achieves the highest training accuracy of 95.40% with extremely less training and testing time on detecting P3 components for the guilty and the innocent subjects. The results indicate that the proposed method can be applied in lie detection.
Abstract: A novel approach of ECG baseline wander correction based on mean-median filter and empirical mode decomposition is presented in this paper. The low frequency parts of the original signals were removed by the mean median filter in a nonlinear way to obtain the baseline wander estimation, then its series of IMFs were sifted by t-test after empirical mode decomposition. The proposed method, tested by the ECG signals in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and European ST_T database, is more effective compared with other baseline wander removal methods.
Abstract: Deformable image registration (DIR) was widely used in radiation therapy, such as in automatic contour generation, dose accumulation, tumor growth or regression analysis. To achieve higher registration accuracy and faster convergence, an improved ‘diffeomorphic demons’ registration algorithm was proposed and validated. Based on Brox et al.'s gradient constancy assumption and Malis's efficient second-order minimization (ESM) algorithm, a grey value gradient similarity term and a transformation error term were added into the demons energy function, and a formula was derived to calculate the update of transformation field. The limited Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm was used to optimize the energy function so that…the iteration number could be determined automatically. The proposed algorithm was validated using mathematically deformed images and physically deformed phantom images. Compared with the original ‘diffeomorphic demons’ algorithm, the registration method proposed achieve a higher precision and a faster convergence speed. Due to the influence of different scanning conditions in fractionated radiation, the density range of the treatment image and the planning image may be different. In such a case, the improved demons algorithm can achieve faster and more accurate radiotherapy.
Abstract: The ion selective transport plays an important role in the function of cell membranes, and promotes the application of artificial permeable membranes. This phenomenon has been studied in case for different diameters and functional groups of nanopores. In this work, we focus on the effect of anions on cation selectivity, in particular the influence of various halide ions on K+ and Na+ selectivity. We adopted molecular dynamics simulations with non-charged nanopores under constant temperature and uniform concentration. The results show K+-selectivity in the solution with Cl- and Na+-selectivity in the solution with Br- and I-. This selectivity, on the contrary,…disappears in the solution with F-. We also investigate the change of the hydration shell of ions and cation-anion interactions between in the bulk region and in the nanopores, which could explain this selective phenomenon.
Keywords: ion selectivity, halide ions, potassium and sodium, hydration shell of ion
Abstract: Five well-known arrhythmia classification algorithms were compared in this paper based on the recommendations in AAMI standard. They are C4.5, k-Nearest Neighbor, Multilayer Perceptron, PART, and Support Vector Machine, respectively, with inputs related to heartbeat intervals and ECG morphological features. They were evaluated on three independent datasets, including the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, a collection of ECG signals acquired from healthy subjects by the wireless Body Sensor Network (BSN) nodes, and a third dataset captured also by the BSN nodes. Results showed the overall accuracy on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database was approximately 99.04%, with high sensitivity, specificity, and selectivity. When tested…with ECG signals acquired from the human subjects, which were partially deteriorated due to several factors, e.g., motion artifacts and data transmission problems, the overall accuracy of 94.19% and that of 81.22% were obtained for static activities and dynamic activities, respectively. In addition, the effects of the signal quality from these human subjects on false alarms were investigated. When false alarms occurring in signal segments with low quality were excluded, the number of false detections reduced from 14.17% to 8.65%. When evaluated on signals generated by the patient simulator, which included several types of premature ventricular contraction without artifacts from body movements, a high classification accuracy was also observed.
Keywords: Arrhythmia classification, body sensor network, ambulatory monitoring, wireless ECG, signal quality
Abstract: Round window placement of a 3-coil transducer offers a new approach for coupling an implantable hearing aid to the inner ear. The transducer exhibits high performance at low-frequencies. One remarkable feature of the 3-coil transducer is that it minimizes leakage flux. Thus, the transducer, which consists of two permanent magnets and three coils, can enhance vibrational displacement. In human temporal bones, stapes vibration was observed by laser Doppler vibrometer in response to round window stimulation using the 3-coil transducer. Coupling between the 3-coil transducer and the round window was connected by a wire-rod. The stimulation created stapes velocity when the…round window stimulated. Performance evaluation was conducted by measuring stapes velocity. To verify the performance of the 3-coil transducer, stapes velocity for round window and tympanic membrane stimulation were compared, respectively. Stapes velocity by round window stimulation using the 3-coil transducer was approximately 14 dB higher than that achieved by tympanic membrane stimulation. The study shows that 3-coil transducer is suitable for implantable hearing aids.
Abstract: The intestinal absorption and antiasthmatic efficacy of poorly water-soluble curcumin (CUR), which has low solubility and permeability, was increased by fabricating solid dispersion granules (SDGs). The SDG containing CUR (SDG-CUR) was prepared by dispersing CUR in excess Cremophor RH40 as a solubilizer and Ryoto sugar ester L-1695 as an absorption enhancer using fluid bed granulation. We evaluated the physicochemical properties such as crystallinity and dissolution, pharmacokinetics, and antiasthmatic efficacy of SDG-CUR. Our results showed that CUR was molecularly dispersed, and the dissolution of SDG-CUR was significantly higher than that of native CUR. In addition, the blood concentration of SDG-CUR in…rats was much higher than that of native CUR. Compared to CUR, SDG-CUR showed a 9.1- and 13.1-fold increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), respectively. Further, SDG-CUR effectively alleviated airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of T-helper 2 cytokines (interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13) in a murine model of asthma. In conclusion, our results suggest that the SDGs could be considered as a potential oral formulation to enhance the absorption and efficacy of CUR.