Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 22, issue 1-3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Human tissues don't regenerate spontaneously, explaining why regenerative medicine and cell therapy represent a promising alternative treatment (autologous cells or stem cells of different origins). The principle is simple: cells are collected, expanded and introduced with or without modification into injured tissues or organs. Among middle-term therapeutic applications, cartilage defects, bone repair, cardiac insufficiency, burns, liver or bladder, neurodegenerative disorders could be considered.
Abstract: Vascular tissue engineering aims to develop implantable blood-vessels, exhibiting biological and biomechanical characteristics close to those of the native vessels. The ultimate goal of our group is to engineer suitable blood vessel substitutes which could be stored for a long time in vascular bank conditions. First attempts tried to develop coating procedures allowing endothelial cells (EC) differentiation, adhesion and retention on current vascular substitutes but the weak in vivo patency of these grafts was related. Since 2003, our group have been evaluated a new surface modification of internal surface of blood vessels based on polyelectrolyte films coating. The layer-by-layer…self-assembly and the resulting polyelectrolyte multiplayer films (PEM) is a simple and versatile way to engineer surfaces with highly specific properties. Previous studies indicated that the poly(sodium-4 styrene sulfonate)/poly (allylamine hydrochloride) PSS/PAH multilayered films when ended by PAH, induce strong adhesion and retention of mature EC which spread and keep their phenotype as well on glass, on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE and on cryopreserved arteries. The mechanical properties (compliance), leading to early intimal hyperplasia and graft failure, were lost after artery cryopreservation. We have demonstrated that the compliance and elasticity restoration of PEM treated cryopreserved arteries close to native arteries. In other respect, the use of the circulating progenitor which could be differentiated into matures vascular cell offers new opportunities in vascular engineering. Currents protocols, expend at least 1 month to observe both smooth muscle (SMCs) and endothelium (ECs)-like morphology and about two months for confluent monolayer cells. The progenitor cells cultivated on PEM treated glass showed mature and functional vascular cells (SMCs and ECs) development after only 14 days of culture. The morphological appearance, mature and healthy phenotype markers expression and repartition of differentiated cells are close to mature cells. Challenge now is to build up in less a month, an autologous cellularized vascular graft using patient peripheral stem cells.
Keywords: Bioengineering, vascular substitutes, circulating progenitor, polyelectrolyte multiplayer films
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, changes in the western population as the possibility of using endovascular techniques have modified the indications and the operative techniques in all areas of vascular surgery. The classical bypass surgery, which required arterial substitutes, is now less and less used. So, the goal of the arterial research should not be centered on the search of the ideal substitute, but on improving minimally invasive techniques, as cell therapy and regenerative medicine. All these techniques will be the new treatments of the atherosclerosis disease in the near future.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, bypass, cell therapy, drug eluting stent, endovascular, vascular surgery
Abstract: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. Subtotal occlusion of the carotid artery is an important risk factor for stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is increasingly being used for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. There are many reports on treating carotid artery stenosis by CAS; however, there are few case reports on treating symptomatic carotid artery subtotal occlusion by CAS, especially in China. To test the clinical applicability, technical results, and morbidity of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in the treatment of symptomatic carotid artery subtotal occlusion. The clinical data of 27 symptomatic carotid artery subtotal…occlusion patients treated with carotid stenting from January 2005 to December 2009 at the University Hospital of Hubei University for Nationalities and the West China Hospital of Sichuan University were systematically reviewed and analysed. Our results suggest that after balloon pre-dilation of the stenotic lesion, with the protection of a distal filter protection device, carotid stenting can be performed to treat symptomatic carotid artery subtotal occlusion patients with acceptable safety. However, the widespread use of this technique still requires large-scale clinical investigation.
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the main causes of mortality in the world representing around 30% of all deaths. It constitutes also an important factor in morbidity and incapacity. There are several related CVD risk factors such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypercoagulability. The exact mechanisms that underlie the relation between those factors and CVD are not sufficiently known yet; pathogenic explanations are lacking also for the mechanisms relating metabolic factors to insulin resistance (IR) and the association with the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The possible links between hypertension, hemostasis alterations and MetS are examined in this…report.
Keywords: Hypertension, hypercoagulability, metabolic syndrome, animal model
Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effects of thyroid hormone on L-type calcium channel mRNA and L-type calcium current of atrium and ventricle. Methods: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into Thyroxine group (n=8) and Control group (n=8). In Throxine group, rabbits were injected intraperitoneally with L-thyroxine solution for 2 weeks (1 mg/kg·d−1 ) to induce hyperthyroidism. In Control group, rabbits were injected with the same volume of saline as for Thyroxine group. On day 15, 4 rabbits in each group were killed randomly to exam the L-type calcium current of atrium and ventricle using whole cell patch clamp; the…other 4 rabbits were killed to detect the expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA using RT-PCR. Results: The mean peak of L-type calcium current densities (pA/pF) at −10 mV was higher in Thyroxine group than in Control group (−8.59±0.68 vs. −6.54±0.49 in atrium, n=8, p<0.001; −9.24±0.67 vs. −7.06±0.21 in ventricle, n=8, p<0.001). L-calcium channel mRNA expression of both atrial myocytes and ventricular cells in Thyroxine group was significantly higher than those in Control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Extrinsic thyroid hormone increased expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA and ICa,L current densities in both atrium and ventricle. These changes infer that supplement of thyroid hormone may ameliorate myocardial contraction in some special conditions such as sepsis.
Abstract: Background and objectives: The aim of this study was first, to analyze the post-thaw progenitor assays usually performed on peripheral blood stem cell autografts and second, to achieve standardization with improved flow cytometric and CFU-GM assays. Materials and methods: In the first part of the study (n=79), recovery and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of total nucleated cells, CD34 and CFU-GM were analyzed before and after cryopreservation. In the second part (n=20), evaluation methods were modified : the washing step was suppressed in the flow cytometric method and 500 CD34 were plated compared to 4×104 total nucleated cells in…the CFU-GM assay. The recovery rates were analyzed and the CFU-GM results were regarded as reliable when 30–100 colonies were observed, according to the manufacturer recommendation. Results: The analysis of the first part showed an ICC that was perfect for total nucleated cells (0.93), substantial for CD34 (0.67) and fair for CFU-GM (0.25). Median CD34 recovery was 112.6% (29.9–222%). The CFU-GM median recovery was 31.7% (0.19–142%) leading to reliable results for 27 grafts. In the second part, the median CD34 recovery was 85.75% (54–99%). No recovery over 100% was observed. The CFU-GM assay led to 18 out of 20 evaluable autografts when 500 CD34 were seeded, compared to 10 out of 20 when total nucleated cell were seeded. Conclusion: Avoiding cell washing in the flow cytometric method limited the overestimate of the CD34 percentage. Plating 500 thawed CD34 improved reliability of the results and allowed a better standardization of the assay.
Abstract: Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, cell-based surgical therapies such as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) have been in clinical use for cartilage repair for over a decade but this approach has shown mixed results. Moreover, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on tissue engineering combining chondrogenic cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. This paper focuses on the main parameters in tissue engineering and on the potential of…mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative to cells derived from patient tissues in autologous transplantation and tissue engineering. Here we discuss the prospects of using autologous chondrocytes or MSCs in regenerative medicine and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these cells in articular cartilage engineering.
Abstract: This study was carried out to explore environmental compound such as nicotine can cause adverse effect on chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Rat BMSCs were capsulated in alginate beads incubated with a chondrogenic differentiation medium and while chondrogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs were cultured for 4 weeks treated with nicotine at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μM. The effect of nicotine on BMSCs viability was tested using MTT assay. After chondrogenic differentiation, alginate beads sections were stained for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) with alcian blue and safranin-O. The mRNA expression of chondrogenesis related genes, including collagen type…2 alpha 1 (Col2A1), aggrecan, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined by RT-PCR. Nicotine did not affect viability of BMSCs at any indicated concentration. Continuous exposure to nicotine for 4 weeks resulted in significant decrease of the area stained with alcian blue and safranin-O in a concentration-dependent manner compared with the control (P<0.05). After 4 weeks in chondrogenic medium, nicotine dose-dependently decreased the expression of aggrecan, Col2A1 and IGF-1 genes in rat BMSCs chondrogenesis compared with the control (P<0.05). It turned out that nicotine suppresses chondrogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs, leading to a poorly differentiated cartilage.