Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 22, issue 1-3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: Mechanical factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) as contributing to alveolo-capillary barrier dysfunction. This study aims at elucidating the role of the cytoskeleton (CSK) and cell–matrix adhesion system in the stressed endothelium and more precisely in the loss of integrity of the endothelial barrier. We purposely develop a cellular model made of a monolayer of confluent Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMVECs) whose cytoskeleton (CSK) is directly exposed to sustained cyclic mechanical stress for 1 and 2 h. We used RGD-coated ferromagnetic beads and measured permeability before…and after stress application. We find that endothelial permeability increases in the stressed endothelium, hence reflecting a loss of integrity. Structural and mechanical results suggest that this endothelial barrier alteration would be due to physically-founded discrepancies in latero-basal reinforcement of adhesion sites in response to the global increase in CSK stiffness or centripetal intracellular forces. Basal reinforcement of adhesion is presently evidenced by the marked redistribution of αv β3 integrin with cluster formation in the stressed endothelium.
Abstract: Objective: Transmucosal delivery is a suitable route for insulin non-injection administration. In order to understand how insulin passes through mucosa with soybean-lecithin as an enhancing absorption. Methods: The penetration rate of insulin molecular through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes in the Ussing Chambers. The imaging morphology of rabbits buccal mucosa was analyzed by using non-contact mode atomic force microscopy. Results: The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean-lecithin. Untreated buccal mucosa showed relatively smooth surface characteristics, with many small crater-like pits and indentations spread over mucosa surfaces. Buccal mucosa that had been…treated with 1.0% (w/v) sodium deoxycholic acid (pH 7.4) appeared to much more indentations characteristic, which treated with 2.5% (w/v) soybean-lecithin (pH 7.4) and 2.5% (w/v) Azone or laurocapram (pH 7.4) appeared rather different, the surface mucosa treated with soybean-lecithin emulsion showed a fine, rippling effect whereas those exposed to Azone display a more coarse, undulating surface feature. As a result of that Azone could damage the surface of the buccal mucosa, but soybean-lecithin could not. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that soybean-lecithin is a better and safer enhancer for insulin transmucosal delivery.
Abstract: Objective: Testosterone is either neutral or has a harmful effect on the male cardiovascular system. But the role of imbalance of testosterone (T) and estrogen (E2) (T/E2 ratio) in male CHD has been less studied. This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between T/E2 ratio and CHD. Methods: Fifty-five male CHD patients (aged 61.25 ± 3.44) and 60 age-matched controls (aged 59.54 ± 1.44) were selected in this research. Results: Compared with control group, levels of both serum T and E2 decreased, but only E2 had statistical significance (P=0.001). The normal testosterone (T)/estradiol…(E2) ratio is 1.7 ± 0.12, but the ratio of T/E2 (3.28 ± 0.58) changed significantly in men with CHD group (P<0.05). With the imbalance of T/E2 ratio in CHD group, we further used a linear and multiple regression methods to analyze the correlation between sex hormones and CHD risk factors. The results showed serum T was positively associated with TG (r=0.439, P<0.01) and D-dimer (r=0.258, P<0.05), but negatively associated with HDL-C (r=−0.267, P<0.05) and Hs-CRP (r=−0.214, P<0.05). However, E2 was highly positive associated with TG (r=0.783, P<0.01) and HDL-C (r=0.515, P<0.01), but was negative related with LDL-C (r=−0.219, P<0.05), TC/LDL (r=−0.236, P<0.05) and D-dimer. Multiple linear regression method also showed the same results between E2 and HDL-C (P=0.020), LDL-C (P=0.000), which showed E2's protective role in cases. However, T/E2's effect is more significative than E2's, and the values between T/E2 and index are HDL-C (r=−0.624, P<0.01), LDL-C (r=0.348, P<0.01), TC/HDL (r=0.237, P<0.05), Hs-CRP (r=0.248, P<0.05) and D-dimer (r=0.249, P<0.05). Multiple linear regression method also showed the positive relationship between T/E2 and HDL-C (P=0.000), D-dimer (P=0.000), and negative relationships between T/E2 and TC (P=0.000), TG (P=0.000) or HDL/LDL (P=0.000). Conclusion: The balance of T/E2 ratio, rather than the absolute levels of androgens, is crucial in modulating the effect of androgens on CHD in males.
Keywords: Coronary heart disease, testosterone, estradiol, imbalance, men
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the correlation between HBV infection and interleukin 27 (IL-27). Methods: Serum IL-27 levels in patients with HBV infection and in healthy individuals were measured by ELISA, regulation of IL-27 by HBV in vitro were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results: IL-27 was significantly elevated in patients as compared to healthy individuals (P<0.001). IL-27 was also detected at higher levels in patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma than those with acute hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis B (P<0.05). We also found that IL-27 expression was influenced by HBV e antigen. In addition, our in vitro…studies demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression were all stimulated in cells transfected with infectious HBV clone. Conclusions: IL-27 would be a novel cytokine for clinical management of HBV-infected patients, which may establish novel HBV therapeutic approaches.