Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 2, issue 3
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Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The electrochemical properties of various porous metal coatings used in reconstructive orthopedic prosthetics were examined. Potentiodynamic corrosion testing was used to evaluate the behavior of the following porous metals; CSTi™ on Cast CoCr, CSTi™ on Ti-6Al-4V, CoCr beads on Cast CoCr, CoCr beads on Ti-6Al-4V, CP Ti beads on Cast CoCr, and CP Ti beads on Ti-6Al-4V. Analysis of the resultant corrosion scans showed that these materials behave similarly to one another. No corrosion-related anomalies were noted.
Abstract: Slip cast conical implants of HA, carbonate-HA, calcium orthophosphate/hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/calcium pyrophosphate/calcium orthophosphate with weight ratios 75/25 and 50/30/20 were implanted in rabbit tibia. The bone-implant interfaces were evaluated histologically, by means of SEM/EDX analysis and by push-out test. Thirty-six implanted samples were investigated after 2, 8, and 24 weeks. The triphasic calcium phospate showed a moderate disintegration. This material showed 2 weeks after implantation a bonding between new bone and implant could be seen in parts of the operation site by SEM. Eight weeks after implantation an intimate relationship between the bone tissue and all specimens of each material…was found. After 24 weeks the Ca/P ratio in the bone had reached the Ca/P ratio of mature bone determined by SEM/EDX analysis.
Abstract: A method was developed to prepare a simple, flexibilized gelatin film-based artificial skin model. The films are tough, adhere to open wounds spontaneously, are permeable to body fluids, and can release incorporated bioactive compounds over 4–5 days.
Keywords: artificial skin, flexibilized gelatin film, model
Abstract: Any delivery system for bioactive molecules should have the ability to release the compound in question in a reproducible and predictable way over a certain period. For artificial skin models that are designed to enhance healing by the use of growth factors, this requirement poses another problem: the design of a delivery method that can provide a realistic assessment of the release kinetics. This means that the design should “mimic” conditions encountered in an open wound, i.e., only a certain part of the film can face the wound, from which it can absorb wound fluid that will dissolve the incorporated…bioactive molecule and bring it to the open wound. Such a system has been developed and the release of 125 I-labelled insulin, incorporated into flexibilized gelatin films, has been determined. The details of this study follow.
Abstract: Hepatic tissue is an important internal organ for life. In this paper, we combined the moire method (an optical method) and indentation technique to investigate biomechanical response of hepatic tissue. To examine this measuring technique, we first measured the biomechanical properties of the block of pig's hepatic tissue using this method. The experimental result indicated that the pig's hepatic tissue was obviously a viscoelastic material. We closely analyzed the change of curves for force relaxation, creep, and nonlinear defonnation of the block of pig's liver. Meanwhile, we also compared the changes in the biomechanical parameters of nonnal and cirrhosis hepatic…tissue of humans.
Abstract: Pneumatically driven, diaphragm type left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were implanted into 2 goats with normal hearts for approximately 1 month to study the effects of long-term pumping of LVAD on the cardiac mechanics. One sham-operated goat was used to obtain control data. Diameters and myocardial segment lengths of the left ventricle were measured with an ultrasonic displacement meter to calculate the bulk mechanical work (BMW) and regional myocardial mechanical work (RMW), respectively. The LVAD was pumped in the 2:1 drive mode (one counterpulsated pumping in every two cardiac cycles), and was temporarily driven in the 1:1 mode (one pumping…in every cardiac cycle) or stopped to obtain the data under these conditions. During the second half of the post-operative period while the animal condition was stable, the BMW in the 2:1 and 1:1 modes were approximately 59% and 72% of that observed under the temporary pump-off condition (0.22 W/(lOO g)), respectively. The RMW in the 2:1 and 1:1 modes were 69% and 74% of that obtained during pump-off (6.2 mW/cm3 ), respectively. The myocyte diameter in the subendocardial layer was reduced by unloading effect of 1-month pumping, whereas those in middle and subepicardial layer showed little change.
Keywords: bulk mechanical work, chronic experiment, left ventricular assist device, regional mechanical work, ultrasonic displacement meter
Abstract: The values of the propagation coefficient measured on a silicon rubber tube in the frequency range 1–15 Hz were compared, using four different equations. The first formula is based on three simultaneous pressure measurements performed at equidistant points; the remaining three equations are original, and make use of only two of the three pressure measurements together with a no-flow condition at the terminal tube section. The results of our trials demonstrate that the experimental phase velocity, obtained with all equations, settles at a value about 25% in excess of the theoretical one computed with a classic linear mathematical model.…This result may be explained by an increase in the dynamical Young modulus with respect to that measured in static conditions. However, the three-point method introduces great errors in the results in the frequency range 11–14 Hz where the spectrum of the second signal becomes minimum. In all cases, the experimental value of attenuation per wavelength at mid-high frequencies is greater than the theoretical one valid for a purely elastic tube. The attenuation values obtained with the two-point method can be explained by introducing a small contribution of wall viscoelasticity (2–3°) into the linear model. Attenuation per wavelength computed with the three-point method turns out about threefold that computed with each of the two-point formulas. This result supports the idea that the accuracy of the three-point method may be insufficient to achieve correct estimation of wave attenuation, especially when the distance between transducers is small compared to wavelength.
Keywords: attenuation per wavelength, phase velocity, viscoelastic tubes, wave propagation