Authors: Niture, Suryakant | Tricoli, Lucas | Qi, Qi | Gadi, Sashi | Hayes, Kala | Kumar, Deepak
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules involved in gene regulation via base-pairing with complementary sequences in mRNAs. The dysregulation of specific miRNAs, such as miR-99b-5p (miR-99b), is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression. However, the mechanistic role of miR-99b in PCa remains to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional and clinical significance of miR-99b in PCa. STUDY DESIGN: The expression of miR-99b and its downstream targets mTOR/AR in the PCa samples were analyzed by RT/qPCR. The effects of miR-99b overexpression/inhibition on PCa cell survival/proliferation, spheroid formation, and cell migration
…were examined by specific assays. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine the binding of miR-99b to 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the mTOR gene. The effects of miR-99b on the expression of mTOR, AR, and PSA proteins, as well as on AKT/mTOR signaling, autophagy, and neuroendocrine differentiation markers were analyzed by western blotting. The expression of miR-99b, mTOR, AR, PSA in AR-negative PC3 and AR-positive LNCaP cells was analyzed by RT/qPCR. The effect of miR-99b on global gene expression in PC3 cells was analyzed by RNA-seq. RESULTS: The expression of miR-99b was downregulated in tumor samples from PCa patients, whereas the expression of mTOR and AR was upregulated. In PCa cell lines, overexpression of miR-99b inhibited cell proliferation and cell colony/spheroid formation; induced apoptosis, and increased sensitivity towards docetaxel (DTX). In contrast, inhibition of miR-99b by miR-99b inhibitor resulted in increased cell growth in PCa cells. Mechanistically, miR-99b inhibited the expression of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) gene by binding to its 3′ UTR and induced autophagy. Furthermore, miR-99b inhibited androgen receptor (AR) activity in LNCaP cells and induced apoptosis. Activation of AR signaling by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) downregulated miR-99b expression and promoted cell PCa cell growth/survival, whereas inactivation of mTOR by rapamycin or AR by enzalutamide decreased miR-99b mediated PCa cell growth. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that miR-99b functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting the mTOR/AR axis in PCa cells, implicating miR-99b as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for PCa management.
Keywords: miR-99b-5p, mTOR, AR, cell survival, autophagy, apoptosis, prostate cancer
Citation: Tumor Biology,
vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 107-127, 2022