Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 10, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Food advertising has been hypothesized to be related with increased consumption of energy-dense food in children, resulting in weight gain. Several studies have been conducted in this field, but little is known about children living in Eastern Europe countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of TV viewing and TV advertising on energy intake in Georgian children. METHODS: Sixty children aged 3–11 were recruited in a school of Tbilisi (Georgia) and were exposed, in an experimental setting, to different levels of TV and TV advertising: “no exposure to TV”, “exposure…to TV without advertising”, “exposure to TV and one advertising”, “exposure to TV and two advertisings”, “exposure to TV and three advertisings”. Children were asked to eat ad libitum for 20 minutes a chocolate-based snack during the afternoon break. RESULTS: Enrolled children showed a median value of energy intake of 220.72 kcal, corresponding to a median of 2 snacks for each child. No significant association between energy intake and TV viewing/TV advertising was found, even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Findings from the present experimental study showed no association of TV viewing and TV advertising with energy intake in a sample of Georgian children.
Keywords: TV food advertising, energy intake, children, Georgia
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity represents a severe public health burden in both developed and newly industrialized countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze obesity predictors in Georgian children and to compare them between Georgia and Europe using a unique method replicated in every country involved in the study. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty children, 3–11 years, balanced by gender were enrolled. Each child was evaluated on the following parameters: anthropometrics, brand awareness, socio-economic status, food habits, and physical activity frequency. RESULTS: Lifestyle of Georgian children was significantly different from that of European…ones: they watched much more TV and did less physical activity (p -value < 0.001, for both). Moreover, in Georgia, higher BMI was associated with higher IBAI score (p -value 0.05). Similarly, in Europe, we could observe a positive relationship (p -value 0.003) between BMI and IBAI score. However, no relationship was found between BMI and TV hours per day in Georgia (p -value 0.94), while longer time spent watching TV was related with higher BMI in European children (p -value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to better analyze the obesity predictors in the country of Georgia, presenting with peculiarities related to its own history, culture, and tradition.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Environmental factors play a key role in obesity development. In recent years, it has been advocated particularly the role of food advertising in promoting the consumption of energy-dense food. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work is to develop an instrument to estimate Georgian children’s brand awareness. METHODS: We developed the IBAI (International Brand Awareness Instrument), an age-appropriate instrument that consists of twelve sheets with pictures of food logos to test children’s recall and recognition of brands. The IBAI was presented to a sample of 120 children aged 3–11 years, enrolled in the city of…Tbilisi (Georgia). RESULTS: Referring to the total score of each child, 46.7% of children showed a very-low brand awareness, followed by medium-low brand awareness (28.3%), medium-high brand awareness (19.2%) and very high brand awareness (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Even though most of the Georgian children enrolled showed a very-low brand awareness, considering that children’s scores for the IBAI ranged in all the four identified categories, we can assume that this instrument allow distinguishing different kinds of children’s brand awareness.
Keywords: Brand awareness, children, Georgia, IBAI
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Flaxseeds are miraculous seeds because of their richness in omega-3, fibers and other healthy compounds, they can be used as a natural remedy for several diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the feasibility of supplementing flaxseed powder to yogurt at 3% to benefit from its functional effects such as its richness in proteins, dietary fiber, polysaccharides, polyphenolic compounds and essential fatty acids for health. METHODS: Two types of milk powder were used for the manufacture of yogurt: skimmed milk powder at 15% (w/v) and whole milk powder at 13.7% (w/v). Physicochemical (pH…and titratable acidity), microbial (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and sensory (texture, odour, taste and color) properties of this supplementation were evaluated during the fermentation time and storage at 4°C. RESULTS: The addition of ground linseed (GFS) decreased the pH values and increased the titratable acidity values during fermentation and refrigerated storage, especially in the case of yogurt manufactured using whole milk powder, where the average pH of samples decreased from 4.37 to 4.20 after 28 days storage while the average titratable acidity increased from 78 to 105°D. Sensory evaluation revealed that supplemented yogurt had better sensory texture, taste and odour scores than the control sample. Supplementation of GFS significantly increased the average values of lactic acid bacteria CFU counts but at values not exceeding 1.25×108 CFU/ml for S. thermophilus and 0.85×107 CFU/ml for Lactobacilllus bulgaricus indicating the possibility of prolonging the shelf life of yogurt. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that the supplementation of yogurt by GFS is appreciated by the tasters and allows to keep a desirable physicochemical properties of the dairy product.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that leptin plays an important role in regulating in energy expenditure and appetite. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low calorie diet with or without combined exercises on leptin, appetite, and weight rebound. METHODS: This is an experimental study and 63 subjects were divided into two groups: a low calorie diet group (LCD) and a low calorie diet with training group (LCD+training). Appetite, anthropometric measures, dietary intake and plasma leptin level were measured before and after the intervention (8 weeks). Body weight was measured…4 weeks after the intervention was ended. RESULTS: The appetite ratings including sensation of hunger, satiety, fullness, and desire to eat were unchanged in both groups (P > 0.05). Energy and carbohydrate intake were correlated with hunger, satiety and fullness before the intervention (P < 0.05). Plasma leptin was significantly reduced in LCD+training group (P = 0.001) but not in LCD group (P = 0.285). Changes in plasma leptin level were associated with body weight changes during 8 weeks of intervention (r = 0.56, P = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: A combination of a low calorie diet with combined training was able to reduce plasma leptin and the change of leptin was associated with body weight changes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells is insufficient to meet the body’s physiologic needs. Iron deficiency is thought to be the most common cause of anemia, and its prevalence is an important health indicator. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to estimate the frequency of iron deficiency anemia among women of childbearing age and to identify the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and nutritional status. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 140 women (20–26 years old). Hemato-biochemical analyses were conducted to assess nutritional status. Anamnesis, characteristics of…menstruation and contraceptive use were collected through a survey. A statistical analysis was performed, and P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The data revealed that of 140 women, 39 (28%) had anemia, 46.15% had iron deficiency anemia, 61.53% had microcytic hypochromic anemia and 99 (70.71%) had body mass index values within the normal range. Oral contraceptives were used by nearly 13% of respondents. Most (77.14%) of them reported a regular menstrual pattern. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be paid to avoiding physiological complications due to anemia during pregnancy.
Keywords: Anemia, iron deficiency anemia, nutritional status, women
Abstract: Nuts consumption reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and some studies demonstrate that nuts may also influence glucose metabolism and are not associated with predicted weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sorrento nuts, added to a white bread test meal, on postprandial glycemic response in a group of healthy individuals. Furthermore, the satiety and hunger sensations were evaluated. Ten healthy volunteers, 3 men and 7 women were studied. Three different meals were consumed by each subject: 100 gr of white bread; 100 gr of white bread + 60 gr of nuts,…100 gr of white bread + 40 gr of olive oil + 27 gr of bresaola. The test meals with nuts or olive oil had the same content of total fat. Blood samples were obtained for glucose analysis before meals and every 30 minutes for 120 minutes after the meal. Bread+nuts had a lower blood glucose response. In particular, at time t60 “Bread+nuts” (72±12 mg/dl) vs “Bread” (91.3±9.1 mg/dl) with p < 0.005, no significant differences with the meal “Bread+oil”. At time t90, “Bread+nuts” (67.8±13.8 mg/dl) vs “Bread” (83.6±7.8 mg/dl) and “Bread+oil” (81.7±14.5 mg/dl) with p < 0.008. Also at time t120 the meal “Bread+nuts” (71.2±8.2 mg/dl) had a significant lower blood glucose response than the two test meals “Bread” (84.4±10.25 mg/dl) and “Bread+oil” (81.6±16.16 mg/dl) with p < 0.05. Satiety sensation increase after meal bread+nuts, while hunger sensation decrease. The results of this study show that the consumption of nuts reduces the postprandial glycemic response and increases the satiety sensation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the Middle East and North Africa, traditional medicine has labelled date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) as milk-increasing fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dates on the amount of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in mothers and their litters of Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: Fifteen lactating female rats were considered in this study. Each group consisted of five female rats and their litters. Suspension of palm fruit (Bam date) at doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg was used for treatment. Bloodletting was conducted on the mothers…on day 10 and day 22 of breastfeeding and on the litters from day 22. After measuring the analytes, the data were analysed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: The serum prolactin in the palm-receiving mothers increased significantly compared to the control group. Date consumption dose-dependently increased the IGF-1 in the mothers and their litters. MDA, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased and GSH increased due to date palm intake. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, Phoenix dactylifera L can be introduced as a diet supplement in breastfeeding females for improved the health and breastfeeding of mothers as well as for improved health, development, and the reduced stress conditions in litters.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Plants are known to contain minerals and many bioactive compounds which provide several health benefits on consumption. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to assess the nutritional composition, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of six wild edible plants consumed by the Bodos of North-East India and the plants are Sphenoclea zeylanica , Cardamine hirsuta , Natsiatum herpeticum , Sphaerantus peguensis , Melothria perpusilla , and Persicaria chinensis . METHODS: Proximate composition of the plant was determined following AOAC method. Mineral contents were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Phytochemical screening of methanol extracts were performed…following standard procedures and several assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plants. RESULTS: The investigation showed that all the six plants have variable quantities of proximate and mineral compositions. The phytochemical screening of methanol extracts revealed the presence of a number of medicinally active secondary metabolites. Among the six wild edible plants, M. perpusilla displayed a better antioxidant property showing the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity, maximum FRAP value, highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation indicate that these wild edible plants are good sources of minerals and natural antioxidants to be incorporated as functional ingredients of food.
Keywords: Wild edible plants, proximate composition, metals, antioxidant, North-East India
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The synthetic antioxidants are used routinely in foods especially those containing oils and fats to protect them against oxidation. Among the synthetic types, the most frequently used are butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ). These compounds have been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus the search for effective, natural compounds with antioxidant activity has been intensified in recent years to replace the synthetic products. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the phytochemical composition, quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and to…study the in vitro antioxidant potential of berries ethanolic extract of P. lentiscus . METHODS: P. lentiscus berries were subjected to different chemical tests for the detection of phytoconstituents of the Algerian variety. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined using standard methods. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was assessed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) assay, 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS·+) assay and reducing power activity assay. Here, (BHT) was used as standard antioxidant. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening revealed that the berries contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, phlobotannins, tanins, saponins, terpenoids, proteins and mucilage while alkaloids, quinones and carotenoids are absents. The P. lentiscus berries extract was found to contain a high amount of total phenols, flavonoids. The berries ethanolic extract of P. lentiscus possess strong scavenging activity against DPPH·, (ABTS·+) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The antioxidant proprieties may be attributed to the presence of high phenolic and flavonoid compounds. CONCLUSION: P. lentiscus is a potential source of natural antioxidants and other phytoconstituents, which justifies its uses in folk medicines.
Keywords: P. lentiscus, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, DPPH· assay, ABTS·+ assay, reducing power