Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 36, issue 3
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Various tools have been created to measure physical function during intensive care unit (ICU) stay and after ICU discharge, but those have not been validated in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. There is a need for a reliable, valid and feasible tool to define the rehabilitation needs of post-ICU COVID-19 patients entering the acute wards and then rehabilitation clinics. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the validity, inter-rater reliability and feasibility of Chelsea Physical Assessment Tool (CPAx) in assessing the functional status of COVID-19 patients after discharge from the ICU. METHODS: Demographic and…clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded. Patients were evaluated using the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, Functional Oral Intake Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, CPAx, Barthel Index, Katz Index and MRC sum score, measurements of grip strength obtained by dynamometer, the 5 time sit-to-stand test and 30 seconds and sit-to-stand test. CPAx and the other functional assessment tools were administered to 16 patients within 48 hours following ICU discharge. For inter-rater reliability, another physiatrist independently re-assessed the patients. MRC sum score, Barthel and Katz indexes were used to assess construct validity of CPAx. The discriminative validity of CPAx was determined by its ability to differentiate between patients with and without ICU acquired muscle weakness based on MRC sum score. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine inter-rater reliability for total scores of the functional assessment tools. Cohen’s Kappa (κ ) coefficient and weighed Kappa (κ w ) were calculated to determine inter-rater reliability of individual CPAx items. Ceiling and flooring effects were calculated by percentage frequency of lowest or highest possible score achieved. The number and percentages of the patients who were able to complete each tool were calculated to assess feasibility. The CPAx score was strongly correlated with MRC sum score (rho: 0.83), Barthel Index (rho: 0.87) and Katz Index (rho: 0.89) (p < 0.001) showing construct validity. Area under the ROC curve demonstrated that cut off score for CPAx was ⩽ 12 to discriminate patients with MRC sum score < 48, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 63%, respectively (AUC = 0.859, p < 0.001). ICC was high for CPAx, MRC sum score, Barthel and Katz indexes, Glasgow Coma Scale, and hand grip strength measurement, with the highest value observed for CPAx (ICC, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71–0.98). κ and κ w analysis showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability for individual CPAx items. No floor or ceiling effect was observed at CPAx while floor effect was observed at Barthel Index scores (25%) and Katz Index scores (37.5%). All patients could be evaluated using CPAx while less were physically able to complete the 5 time sit-to-stand, 30 seconds sit-to-stand tests (n = 4) and MRC sum score (n = 14). CONCLUSION: CPAx is a valid, reliable, and feasible tool to assess the physical functional state in COVID-19 patients following discharge from the ICU.
Keywords: COVID-19, post-intensive care, physical performance, function, rehabilitation, validity, reliability
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although the number of new cases of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been drastically reduced worldwide, patients who demonstrate long-term symptoms need more attention from health systems, as these symptoms can negatively affect functionality and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate muscle function and quality of life at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome and to assess their associations with general fatigue and lung function. METHODS: This observational and longitudinal study evaluated patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Participants were subjected to the following evaluations: Short Form-36; handgrip…strength; Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale; and spirometry. RESULTS: Among the 350 participants who were evaluated in the third month, 74.6%, 61.4% and 45.4% reported general fatigue, dyspnoea and cough, respectively. In the comparisons between the third month and the sixth month, there were significant increases in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, pulmonary function and several Short Form-36 domains. In the comparisons between the sixth month and the ninth month, there was a significant increase only in the social functioning domain of the Short Form-36. In the comparisons between the ninth month and the twelfth month, there was an increase only in some Short Form-36 domains. Significant correlations were observed between the Short Form-36 domains with Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, handgrip strength and pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: In patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, there was a progressive improvement in quality of life, general fatigue and pulmonary function during the 12 months of follow-up, with this improvement being more pronounced in the first 6 months. There was a relationship between functionality and quality of life in these patients.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, muscles, fatigue, respiratory function tests, rehabilitation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder (FS) is characterized by progressive shoulder pain and a limited range of motion. Recently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection is a newly developed treatment option for patients with FS and its efficacy needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: By conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, this study attempted to evaluate the efficacy of PRP injection in the treatment of patients with FS. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Elsevier, The Cochrane Library, WanFang Data and CNKI databases were searched up to May 31, 2020. This study included randomized controlled trials as well…as prospective cohort studies. Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract and full text in order to extract data from qualified studies. The main outcome was pain visual analogue score (VAS) while the secondary outcome was range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder joint that consists of four parts: internal rotation, flexion, external rotation and abduction. RESULTES: Three randomized controlled trials and one prospective cohort study met the inclusion criteria. Accordingly, a total of 359 cases were analyzed and followed up to 3 months. The control group included corticosteroids (CS), ultrasound therapy, and stellate ganglion block. Compared to other groups, VAS was statistically significant after 1 month and 3 months of treatment (SMD: - 0.46, 95% CI: - 0.75 to - 0.18, P = 0.002; I= 2 43.2%), (SMD: - 0.87, 95% CI: - 1.23 to - 0.50, P = 0.00, I= 2 61.9%). Compared to the control group, only flexion of the patients treated with PRP demonstrated no significant improvement at 1 month, whereas internal rotation, flexion, external rotation and abduction of the shoulder were found to be improved following 3 months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The corresponding findings illustrate that compared to other non-operative treatments, local injection of PRP can effectively improve pain and shoulder motion in patients with FS. However, due to the short follow-up time and limitations regarding the quantity and quality of studies, the above conclusions require further elucidation by performing additional high-quality studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a clinical diagnosis and an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of states associated with pain disproportionate to any inciting event, together with a number of signs and symptoms that are manifested mainly in the limbs. There are often concerns among clinicians and patients about the potential harms caused by pain provocation during physiotherapy of CRPS, even though clinical guidelines de-emphasize pain-contingency. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this narrative review is to summarize current evidence regarding potential harms due to pain provocation during so-called exposure-based therapies in individuals with CRPS.…METHODS: Six studies evaluating exposure-based approach were included (n = 6). RESULTS: Although only one included study focused primarily on safety and in the rest of the included studies the reporting of harms was insufficient and therefore our certainty in evidence is very low, taken together with outcome measures, available data does not point to any long-term deterioration in symptoms or function, or any major harms associated with pain provocation during physiotherapy of CRPS. CONCLUSION: There is a great need for higher-quality studies to determine which therapeutic approach is the most appropriate for whom and to evaluate the risks and benefits of different approaches in more detail.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) is one of the main rehabilitation goals in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), controversies are still open about the optimal rehabilitation approach. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed at characterizing the rehabilitation interventions currently available to optimize weaning from MV in SCI patients. METHODS: On April 12 nd , 2022, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, and PEDro, identifying studies assessing MV patients with SCI undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were weaning…duration, MV duration, and weaning success rate. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary function, extubation or decannulation time, length of stay, and safety. RESULTS: Out of 413 records, 14 studies were included (2 randomized controlled trials, 7 observational studies, and 5 case reports). Most of the studies assessed a comprehensive rehabilitation approach, including high tidal volume ventilation, positioning, mechanical lung recruitment maneuvers, secretion management strategies, respiratory muscle training, and electrical stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that a comprehensive rehabilitation intervention might have a role in reducing MV duration in patients with SCI. Further studies are needed to better characterize the optimal rehabilitation strategies for enhancing functional recovery of patients with SCI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Choosing measurement tools for diagnostic, prognostic, or evaluative purposes in a chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) population is challenging for rehabilitation practice. Implementation of measurement tools for clinical practice is impaired by gaps in knowledge about measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: Identifying evidence about the measurement properties of tools frequently used in Dutch pain rehabilitation practice. METHODS: A mapping review was conducted of eligible studies that investigated reliability , validity , or responsiveness , and interpretability , as defined by the COSMIN taxonomy, of original versions or Dutch translations of predefined Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs)…in a CMP population. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched in March 2021. Results were visually mapped. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies were included. The results show many knowledge gaps in both original and translated versions. In general, aspects of validity were most frequently reported. The Pain Disability Index, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey were the most studied measurement tools. No results were found for the Checklist Individual Strength, Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Utrecht Coping List. CONCLUSION: Little evidence of the measurement properties of PROMs used in rehabilitation of patients with CMP in the Netherlands was found. PROMs need to be used and interpreted with caution in daily practice.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diagnostic imaging (DI) studies are useful resources for examining musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. When DI is used appropriately, it is an important tool for physical therapists (PTs). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to PTs’ practices in referring to DI in Saudi Arabia (SA). METHODS: For this quantitative cross-sectional study, an online self-reported questionnaire was designed and distributed. A total of 138 PTs participated in the study. RESULTS: Although most PTs had access to DI, few reported being able to order DI.…The PTs demonstrated positive attitudes regarding their ability to refer patients for DI. Nevertheless, some PTs have adopted several beliefs and awareness of PTs regarding the clinical appropriateness of referring to DI, which may increase the unnecessary utilisation of DI requests. More than half of the PTs in this study reported that they were unfamiliar with the clinical rules used for prescribing imaging. CONCLUSION: This study highlights recommendations to improve PTs’ practices towards DI in SA, such as providing more DI courses targeting PTs and including clinical rules within DI education in undergraduate studies. Furthermore, a clear governmental policy is needed to permit PTs to refer to DI when specific criteria are met.
Keywords: Physical therapists, diagnostic imaging, Saudi Arabia, beliefs, attitude, professional practice
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The hamstring muscles have a great tendency to decrease their extensibility, a phenomenon that presents a distinct clinical entity called short hamstring syndrome (SHS), in addition to problems with adjacent structures. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of lumbar fascia stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring musculature. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out. Forty-one women between 18 and 39 years old were divided into two groups: the experimental group received a technique of fascial stretching in the lumbar area while the control group…participated in a magnetotherapy machine that was turned off. Hamstring flexibility in both lower limbs was measured by the straight leg raising test (SLR) and the passive knee extension test (PKE). RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in the SLR and the PKE for both groups. There was a large effect size (Cohen’s d) for both tests. There was a statistically significant correlation between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the SLR. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of lumbar fascia stretching might be an effective part of a treatment protocol to increase the flexibility of the hamstring muscle observing an immediate result in healthy participants.
Keywords: Back muscles, fascia, hamstring muscles, range of motion
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pole vaulting involves trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, which may place the lumbar spine under stress. Repeated pole vaulting may cause lumbar disc degeneration (DD) and lumbar spondylolysis (LS); however, this phenomenon is yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the difference in the maximum joint angles of the shoulder, hip, and trunk during pole vaulting between male pole vaulters with and without lumbar DD or LS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 17 male pole vaulters. Four high-speed cameras were used to record the pole vaulters at 240 Hz.…Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to examine the lumbar spine in all athletes. Differences in the data between two sets of groups were analyzed using the unpaired t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the maximum joint angle of hip flexion between pole vaulters with and without lumbar DD (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Pole vaulters with lumbar DD may use lumbar flexion instead of hip flexion during the rock-back movement. Moreover, LS may occur due to repeated failed vaulting. Therefore, trunk stability and functional movements should be prioritized to prevent organic changes in the lower back.
Keywords: Lumbar spine, lumbar vertebrae, intervertebral disc degeneration, track and field