Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 9, issue 2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The instrument precision and between-patient variability of haemorheological measurements have been determined using six commercially available instruments: Technicon Ektacytometer, Contraves LS30, SEFAM Erythro-Agregametre, IMH Hemorheometre, Carri-Med St. George’s Filtrometer, and ABX Cell Transit Analyser. Instrument performance was similar at 25°C and 37°C. The different instruments, and sometimes the different parameters of one instrument, showed important differences in precision. Variability of results between patients was often greater than between healthy subjects. The results indicate that both instrument precision and biological variability should be determined in advance of rheological studies so that the required number of subjects can be estimated. A nomogram…is presented to facilitate determination of sample size for studies in which the data are to be analysed by either parametric or non-parametric tests.
Abstract: This paper deals with the study of comparison of haemorheological parameters between normal controls (NC) and cases of acute infections (INFA) in pediatric age group.The haemorheological parameters studied include haematocrit, whole blood viscosity, red cell aggregation and red cell deformability. Of all the haemorheological parameters the values of haematocrit,whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation expressed as corrected E.S.R. (ESRSt Pv Ht ) and also estimated by Schmid Schonbein’s photometric method expressed as MEA index are significantly altered.
Abstract: The functional involvement of the previously characterized high affinity binding of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 ) in human red blood cells (RBC) has been investigated. By using a filtration technique in vitro, it was demonstrated that LTC4 reduced erythrocyte deformability at low concentrations (10 −10 - 10−6 mol. I−1 ). This effect is highly specific since LTD4 did not decrease the filterability of the cells. Factors affecting the binding also modified the filtration index. The possible role of this leucocyte metabolite in hemorheological disturbances including RBC deformability is suggested.
Abstract: Blood rheology and platelet function were studied serially in 23 patients with unstable angina compared to 70 healthy controls. On admission, the angina patients had raised blood viscosity at, any shear rate (m ± SEM) at = 0.94 sec−1 : 17.3 ± 0.5 vs 14.7 ± 0.2 mPas; p<.001), plasma viscosity (1.32 ± 0.02 vs 1.22 ± 0.01 cSt; p<.001), and erythrocyte aggregation index (16.2 ± 0.7 vs 14.6 ± 0.4; p<.01). Plasma fibrinogen, plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte filterability were not different from those of the control group. ADP platelet aggregation in vitro was normal, but plasma levels…of β -thromboglobulin (65.3 ± 9.5 vs 31.1 ± 1.3 ng/ml; p<.001), of platelet factor 4 (24.7 ± 4.5 vs 6.6 ± 0.6 ng/ml; p<.001) and of platelet malonyldialdehyde (5.6 ± 0.5 vs 5.0 ± 0.2 nmol/109 platelets; p<.05) were significantly higher. The hemorheological and platelet abnormalities observed on admission in the patients who later developed complications (that is, who had infarctions or a recurrence of angina, or who died) were similar to those observed in the patients whose progress was good. There was no relation between the degree of hemorheological disturbances, and platelet dysfunction and the number of attacks of angina. Thesure results demonstrate the existence of a syndrome of blood hyperviscosity and platelet dysfunction in unstable angina. These disturbances did not seem to be related to the clinical outcome of patients or to the severity of angina.
Abstract: Blood rheological abnormalities play an important role in venous pathology as does varicose vein disease. In this study the essential microrheological parameters (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability) were tested on 20 control subjects and 20 patients having varicose veins in the legs.The measurements were taken on samples collected at an antecubital vein, on leg veins before and after 30 minutes of stasis. Those patients having varicose veins of the lower limbs showed aggravated rheological disturbances after stasis. In the veins, where the blood flow rate is the lowest, the erythrocyte aggregation appeared as the fundamental parameter associated…with the alteration of red cell deformability and with the increase of plasma viscosity.
Abstract: Bepridil is a new calcium antagonist that was found to cause swelling and stomatocytosis of normal erythrocytes by increasing passive permeability of cations across the cell membrane. At 100 µmol/l, the drug also fully inhibited the Ca2+ -activated (Gardos) K+ channel. When normal and sickle erythrocytes were dehydrated by Ca2+ loading using the ionophore A23187, bepridil at 10–100 µmol/l had a significant protective effect against loss of filterability through pores of 5 µm diameter. Bepridil has the potential to prevent erythrocyte dehydration and sickling by blocking entry of Ca2+ , by inhibiting loss of K+ via the…Gardos channel, and by increasing passive permeability of cations from plasma.
Abstract: The changes in erythrocytes composition and hemorheological parameters are studied in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The study shows that cholesterol, phospholipids and c/p ratio in erythrocytes are increased in MI patients when compared to that of’ normals. The individual phospholipid composition is also altered with increase of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in plasma, and phosphatidylcholine in erythrocytes. There is no significant change in protein composition except a significant decrease in sialic acid content of cell. The membrane enzymes such as Na+ , K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ,Mg2+ ATPase are decreased and there is no change in cytosolic…calmodulin stimulatory activity observed. Whole blood viscosity and osmotic fragility are increased. The deformability of erythrocytes is significantly decreased.
Abstract: The fragility of erythrocytes (RBC) from patients with acute ischemic stroke and from normal age-matched control individuals was compared in the presence of ionomycin and various calcium ion concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.5 mM after filtration through 5 µm pore diameter polycarbonate membranes at 20 cm Hg pressure. At calcium ion concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM, RBC from stroke patients hemolyzed to a greater extent than those obtained from controls. This difference is indicative of abnormal calcium ion homeostasis in RBC obtained from stroke patients. Flunarizine, a calcium ion channel blocker, significantly inhibited the degree of hemolysis…of RBC due to calcium loading in both stroke and control groups. These data are consistent with numerous reports showing that calcium ion homeostasis plays a crucial role in governing RBC mechanical properties including cellular deformability.