Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 8, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Measurements of blood rheology in clinical studies should incorporate a quality control programme and, for this purpose, we have studied three approaches to the preparation of an erythrocyte standard. Partial fixation of erythrocytes using 0.04% w/v formaldehyde at ambient temperature, followed by storage at 4°C, provided an erythrocyte suspension which gave stable 5 µm pore filtration values for up to 4 weeks. Incubation of erythrocytes with a monoclonal antibody (BRIC 14) to membrane Glycophorin A caused impairment of filterability which was maintained for up to 11 days. A cross-linked acrylic copolymer, comprising soft spheres of 5–8 µm diameter, was also…developed as an erythrocyte substitute for filtration studies. This pilot study indicates the potential for development of an international reference standard for rheological studies.
Abstract: The measurement of plasma viscosity is gaining interest in clinical medicine. In order to define a suitable measuring device, four commercially available instruments were compared: the Coulter Harkness (capillary), the Haake (rolling ball), the Luckham (capillary) and the Rheomed (capillary) viscometer. In terms of reproducibility the Coulter Harkness and the Luckham instruments were best. The Luckham machine offers further advantages in terms of practicability. On the other hand, the Haake instrument is lowest in price, requires the least sample volume and allows repetitive testing. In conclusion, our results suggest, that the Luckham, Coulter and Haake viscometers can be recommended for…the measurement of plasma viscosity.
Keywords: plasma viscosity, viscometer, methods, hemorheology, screening test
Abstract: We have evaluated the sensitivity for rigid red cells of four different rheological tests: viscometry, red cell filtration, red cell elongation in a centrifugal field, and membrane aspiration into filter pores. Washed red cells were partially rigidified with 0, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 % glutaraldehyde for 30 min. The four tests had a similar sensitivity in measuring the gradual decrease of red cell deformability with increasing glutaraldehyde, with the exception of filtration, which was not sensitive for 0.01 and 0.02 % glutaraldehyde. The capacity of the tests to detect subpopulations of rigidified cells (0.03 % glutaraldehyde for 30 min) among…normal red cells was analysed. The threshold for detection was between 10 and 30 % hardened cells. We conclude that the four rheological tests have a similar, good sensitivity for uniform populations of rigid red cells. Subpopulations of abnormal cells (below 30 %) are less well detected and should, therefore, be enriched in the suspension prior to rheological measurements.
Abstract: A novel rapid in vitro screening model for testing the effects of pharmacological substances on calcium ion mediated mechanical fragility of human erythrocytes is presented. Red cells are rendered rigid and mechanically fragile by calcium ion loading of human erythrocytes via the ionophore A23187. The cells are then filtered through 5 µm pore diameter polycarbonate filter membranes at 20 cm Hg pressure. In contrast to normal cells the rigid and mechanically fragile cells are impeded at the surface of the filter and tensions exceeding the material strength of the red cell membrane develop resulting in hemolysis. The extent of…hemolysis in the filtrate, which can be inhibited dose-dependently by the rheoactive calcium channel blocker flunarizine, is then assayed. The model lends itself as a primary screening method for discovering and developing pharmacological agents potentially useful in the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases.
Abstract: Hemorheological tests of 120 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were performed, including whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, whole blood reducing viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and its equational coefficient K, erythroelectrophoresis, fibrinogen, triglyceride and cholesterol. There were statistically significant differences of all criteria (except cholesterol) between patients and controls. The numbers of abnormal parameters were correlated to the severity of the disease and prognosis. The numbers of abnormal parameters reduced after radiotherapy. There were higher incidences of recurrence and metastasis in patients with more abnormal parameters after radiotherapy. The relation between parameters of hemorheology and that of immunology were discussed.
Keywords: Radiotherapy, immunology, blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, early and advanced stage of cancer
Abstract: Erythrocyte ATP was partially depleted by incubating normal human erythrocytes at 37°C for 24 hours. Incubation in the presence of 5 mmol/l oxpentifylline caused further depletion of ATP irrespective of whether membrane Na+ /K+ pump or Na+ /K+ /Cl− cotransport activities were inhibited and whether glycolysis was stimulated or inhibited. Similar depletion of erythrocyte ATP was found by incubating erythrocytes with either metabolite I of oxpentifylline, the rheologically active oxpentifylline analogue A81 3138, or the rheologically inactive natural methylxanthine theophylline. Partitioning of 14 C-oxpentifylline into the erythrocyte membrane was demonstrated but this did not increase membrane surface area…as tested by hypotonic stress. Thus the rheological action of oxpentifylline at 37°C, which is associated with inhibition of K+ efflux from erythrocytes, is a membrane-associated event and does not involve an increase in cell ATP content.
Keywords: Rheology, Erythrocyte deformability, Oxpentifylline, Ion channels
Abstract: We studied hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation index and plasma fibrinogen level in 19 healthy subjects. We measured erythrocyte aggregation both on native blood and on washed erythrocytes resuspended in their own autologous plasma or serum. We found a significant negative linear correlation between hematocrit and the erythrocyte aggregation index on native blood whereas we found a significant negative polynomial (quadratic) correlation between hematocrit and erythrocyte aggregation on erythrocyte suspensions. Moreover we found a significant positive correlation between plasma fibrinogen levels and the erythrocyte aggregation index. Methodological and clinical aspects of these findings are discussed.
Abstract: In a group of subjects with vascular atherosclerotic disease (VAD), we evaluated the erythrocyte membrane individual phospholipids using the two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. From the obtained preliminary data, it is evident that no individual phospholipids discriminate normals from subjects with VAD. The study of the relationships between individual phospholipids and red cell membrane fluidity (evaluated using a fluorescence technique and marking the red cells with pyrene) has shown a slight positive correlation between this microrheological parameter and the phosphatidylethanolamine content only.
Keywords: Vascular atherosclerotic disease, Red cell phospholipids, Membrane microviscosity
Abstract: In the first part of the study haemorheologic changes in 8 patients who received intra-operative autotransfusion were investigated during and after cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) surgery for aorto-coronary by-pass and compared with those obtained in comparable groups of bank blood transfused or non-transfused patients. No significant differences were found in blood viscosity at both shear rates tested, in plasma viscosity and in fibrinogen levels; the only variations were related to the different haematocrit levels. In the second part of the study the filterability of erythrocytes, after being processed for autotranfusion (“autotrans”), was determined in 10 patients submitted to CPB by means…of the St. George’s Filtrometer and compared with the filterability of red blood cells obtained by simultaneous venous blood sampling. Filterability was no different in “autotrans” and venous blood erythrocytes. In conclusion our data show that intra-operative autotransfusion during CPB surgery does not induce any measurable haemorheologic deterioration and seems therefore a safe procedure in relation to the flow properties of blood.
Abstract: We evaluated red cell phospholipids and the relationships between these lipidic components and membrane microviscosity in a group of 12 diabetics of type 1, in a group of 16 diabetics of type 2 and in a group of 12 normal controls. From the obtained data, it is evident that no significant difference is present between normals and diabetics of type 1 regarding the individual phospholipids; between normals and diabetics of type 2 a significant difference regarding sphyngomyeline and phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyeline ratio is evident. No statistical difference of the membrane microviscosity is present between normals and diabetics of type 1 and 2.…In normals and in diabetics of type 1 and 2 no relationship is evident between membrane microviscosity and individual phospholipids.
Abstract: This study was carried out on 329 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma 120, thyroid cancer 27, esophagus carcinoma 10, primary hepatic cancer 67, stomach cancer 36, carcinoma of co.rdia 27, breast cancer 10 and lymphoma 32. The hemorheological tests were performed including whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, whole blood reduced v scosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and its equational coefficient K, erythroelectrophoresis, fibrinogen, triglyceride and cholesterol. It was shown that there was a significant elevation of fibrinogen in all types of cancer (except thyroid cancer) and significant elevation of red cell aggregation and increased plasma viscosity and whole blood reduced viscosity in…all type of cancer. These tests should be of diagnostic and prognostic value. Hemorheological changes in hepatic diseases (hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis and primary hepatic cancer) and gastric diseases (chronic superfical gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, ulcer and stomach. cancer) were observed respectively. Those tests, especially level of fibrinogen and K would be recognized as an adjuvant factor for evaluation the process and end-result of those diseases and to distinguish benignancy from malignancy.
Keywords: Haemorheology, Cancer, Thyroid CA, Esophagus CA, Primary Hepatic CA, Stomach CA, CA of Cardia, Breast CA, Lymphoma, NP CA