Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 8, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Measurements of blood rheology in clinical studies should incorporate a quality control programme and, for this purpose, we have studied three approaches to the preparation of an erythrocyte standard. Partial fixation of erythrocytes using 0.04% w/v formaldehyde at ambient temperature, followed by storage at 4°C, provided an erythrocyte suspension which gave stable 5 µm pore filtration values for up to 4 weeks. Incubation of erythrocytes with a monoclonal antibody (BRIC 14) to membrane Glycophorin A caused impairment of filterability which was maintained for up to 11 days. A cross-linked acrylic copolymer, comprising soft spheres of 5–8 µm diameter, was also…developed as an erythrocyte substitute for filtration studies. This pilot study indicates the potential for development of an international reference standard for rheological studies.
Abstract: The measurement of plasma viscosity is gaining interest in clinical medicine. In order to define a suitable measuring device, four commercially available instruments were compared: the Coulter Harkness (capillary), the Haake (rolling ball), the Luckham (capillary) and the Rheomed (capillary) viscometer. In terms of reproducibility the Coulter Harkness and the Luckham instruments were best. The Luckham machine offers further advantages in terms of practicability. On the other hand, the Haake instrument is lowest in price, requires the least sample volume and allows repetitive testing. In conclusion, our results suggest, that the Luckham, Coulter and Haake viscometers can be recommended for…the measurement of plasma viscosity.
Keywords: plasma viscosity, viscometer, methods, hemorheology, screening test
Abstract: We have evaluated the sensitivity for rigid red cells of four different rheological tests: viscometry, red cell filtration, red cell elongation in a centrifugal field, and membrane aspiration into filter pores. Washed red cells were partially rigidified with 0, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 % glutaraldehyde for 30 min. The four tests had a similar sensitivity in measuring the gradual decrease of red cell deformability with increasing glutaraldehyde, with the exception of filtration, which was not sensitive for 0.01 and 0.02 % glutaraldehyde. The capacity of the tests to detect subpopulations of rigidified cells (0.03 % glutaraldehyde for 30 min) among…normal red cells was analysed. The threshold for detection was between 10 and 30 % hardened cells. We conclude that the four rheological tests have a similar, good sensitivity for uniform populations of rigid red cells. Subpopulations of abnormal cells (below 30 %) are less well detected and should, therefore, be enriched in the suspension prior to rheological measurements.
Abstract: A novel rapid in vitro screening model for testing the effects of pharmacological substances on calcium ion mediated mechanical fragility of human erythrocytes is presented. Red cells are rendered rigid and mechanically fragile by calcium ion loading of human erythrocytes via the ionophore A23187. The cells are then filtered through 5 µm pore diameter polycarbonate filter membranes at 20 cm Hg pressure. In contrast to normal cells the rigid and mechanically fragile cells are impeded at the surface of the filter and tensions exceeding the material strength of the red cell membrane develop resulting in hemolysis. The extent of…hemolysis in the filtrate, which can be inhibited dose-dependently by the rheoactive calcium channel blocker flunarizine, is then assayed. The model lends itself as a primary screening method for discovering and developing pharmacological agents potentially useful in the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases.