Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 8, issue 5
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: We were deeply saddened to announce, on the occasion of this issue dedicated to our late friend and colleague George William Scott Blair, also the news of the death of our friend and colleague Takehiko Azuma. He was an Editor of CLINICAL HEMORHEOLOGY since 1981, when this Companion Journal of BIORHEOLOGY began its publication. We express our deeply felt sympathies to Mrs. Rita Scott Blair and Mrs. Etsuko Azuma and their families. In our condolences we are joined by the Publishers and the members of the Editorial Board of CLINICAL HEMORHEOLOGY.
Abstract: These pages are dedicated to the memory of our colleague and dear friend George William Scott Blair, Co-Founder of BIORHEOLOGY and its Co-Editor-in-Chief from November 1959 to December 1978. The photograph of George W. Scott Blair was taken in 1972 during the Banquet of the First International Congress of Biorheology, held together with the Sixth International Congress on Rheology, at Lyon, France.
Abstract: In four patients with extreme fetal growth retardation before 28 wks amenorrhea an attempt was made to improve maternal placental perfusion by isovolemic hemodilutio. Despite the substantial reduction in maternal whole blood viscosity, the predicted intra-uterine fetal death occurred in all 4 patients. No substantial changes were found in the fetal non stress cardiotocogram during or after the hemodilution procedure. Very small and largely infarcted placentae were present. It is concluded, that the decrease in maternal whole blood viscosity was not effecti ve in modi fying the ultimate fatal outcome.
Abstract: A laser diffraction system for the measurement of R BC deformation (i.e., Elongation Index, EI) has been evaluated and the results compared to data obtained via direct observation with a cone-plate Rheoscope; this laser system is designed to be used with a Contraves LS-30 viscometer and is based on the ektacytometric principle. When compared with the Rheoscope, EI values from the laser system are in close agreement (r = 0.965, 7 normal donors) over a shear stress range of 6.2 to 245.8 dynes/cm2 . Both methods demonstrated decreasing RBC deformability consequent to increasing periods of heat treatment at 48 ∘…C, with the paired data being fitted by a Y = X relationship. In addition, the laser system clearly demonstrated the expected inverse relation between cell age (i.e., density and cell deformation. The laser system was also used to measure light transmission-shear rate relations and thus to determine the minimum shear rate necessary to induce complete RBC disaggregation (γ ˙ Tmin ); paired studies indicated excellent agreement between this method and results obtained with a Myrenne Aggregometer (r = 0.989, 7 normal donors). In overview, this laser diffraction system offers a useful, relatively low cost method for the measurement of RBC deformability and of RBC aggregation parameters; whole blood and plasma viscosity measurements are also possible via the associated Contraves viscometer.
Abstract: This paper deals with the study of comparison of haemorheological parameters between normal controls (NC) and cases of chronic infections (INFC) including tuberculosis. The haemorheological parameters studied include haematocrit, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and red cell aggregation. Of all the haemorheological parameters the values of haematocrit, red cell aggregation and red cell rigidity index (Tk) are significantly altered.
Keywords: Chronic infections, red cell aggregation, hacmatocrit, plasma viscosity
Abstract: We studied blood and plasma viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation index and plasma protein fractions in 26 healthy subjects. We found a significant positive linear correlation between hematocrit and blood viscosity at each of the considered shear rates (low shear range), and a significant negative linear correlation between hematocrit and erythrocyte aggregation index. Furthermore, we found a significant linear correlation between a multiparameter index and erythrocyte aggregation index so that fibrinogen and a-2-globulins seemed to have an enhancing effect on rouleaux forming whereas albumin and hematocrit seemed to play an opposing role. Physiopathological and clinical aspects of these findings were discussed.
Abstract: The oxygen-carrying resuscitative fluids called blood substitutes, have been synthesized from a hydroxyethyl starch (HES) modified to a polymeric trialdehyde and hemoglobins (Hgb) which are stabilized with either glyoxalic acid or 1,2-cyclohexanedione. The molecular weights of the starting HES polymers were 450,000, 264,000 and 59,000. The modified HES compounds averaged about 35% aldehyde. After synthesis, the new polymers shifted the P50 from 14.9 mmHg for a 6% Hgb solution to about 35 mmHg. From the preliminary studies in this laboratory, it appears feasible to produce a suitable substance in a freeze-dried form. In vivo experiments included exchange-transfusion in rats…following the hemoglobin retention kinetics in the plasma and the excretion in the urine. The results indicate that these blood substitutes are hemodiluents, can provide adequate oncotic pressure as well as the necessary oxygen transport for animal survival. Using these new polymers, final hematocrits below 15% were much easier to obtain with a vastly improved survival rate. Electrophoretic mobility patterns of the plasma during the transfusion-exchange indicate a step-wise breakdown of the polymer. In some cases, the substitute remained in the plasma up to 72 hours.
Abstract: The impaired deformability of sickle cells is a consequence of increased cytoplasmic viscosity secondary to cell dehydration and polymerization of haemoglobin S. Cetiedil citrate and oxpentifylline are potential anti-sickling agents that preserve intracellular cations and improve the deformability of sickle cells when they are dehydrated by ionophore-induced loss of intracellular K+ and water. When sickle cells from 19 patients were dehydrated by hyperosmolar stress, without inducing loss of cell cations, neither drug prevented the consequential reduction in cell filterability through 5 µm diameter pores. These drugs will not, therefore, prevent loss of water from erythrocytes in a hypertonic environment…such as the renal medulla or ischaemic tissue. Preservation of erythrocyte K+ content would, however, maintain a higher reserve of cell cations and water to withstand hyperosmolar stress.