Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 55, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Despite considerable efforts in biomaterial development there is still a lack on substrates for cardiovascular tissue engineering approaches which allow the establishment of a tight a functional endothelial layer on their surface to provide hemocompatibility. The study aimed to test the biocompatibility of a silicon (Si14 )-based coating substrate (Supershine Medicare, Permanon) which was designed to resist temperatures from −40°C up to 300°C and which allows the use of established heat-inducing sterilization techniques respectively. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it could be validated that this substrate is able to establish a 40–50 nm thick layer of silica, oxygen and carbon without…including any further elements from the substrate on an exemplary selection of materials (silicone, soda-lime-silica glass, stainless steel). Analysis of the LDH-release, the cell activity/proliferation (MTS assay) and the cell phenotype after growing 3T3 cells with extracts of the coated materials did not indicate any signs of cytotoxicity. Additionally by measuring the C5a release after exposure of the coated materials with human serum it could be demonstrated, that the coating had no impact on the activation of the complement system. These results generally suggest the tested substrate as a promising candidate for the coating of materials which are aimed to be used in cardiovascular tissue engineering approaches.
Abstract: When dealing with T lymphocyte culture there is currently very less information available about the interaction between T-cells and the culture system. In this study we look at the influence of the culture chamber on T-cell proliferation in two main aspects of the culture system, namely: culture chamber material and geometry. The study was carried out using unique polymeric closed cell culture inserts, which were processed via injection moulding from polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyetherurethane (PEU), polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile (PSAN) and polyetherimide (PEI). Furthermore culture chamber geometry was studied using commercially available 24, 12 and 6-well plates prepared from tissue culture plastic…(TCP). For T lymphocyte stimulation two methods were used involving either EBV peptide pools or MACS iBead particles depending on the experiment performed. Culture was done with 1645 RPMI medium supplemented with foetal calf serum, penicillin, streptomycin and rhIL-2. We found four materials out of five we tested (PS, PC, PSAN and PEI) exhibited similar fold expansions with minimal influence on proportions of CD4 and CD8, while PEU had a negative influence on T cell growth along with adversely affected CD4/CD8 proportions. Changes in the geometry of TCP had no effect on T cell growth or maturation rather the size of geometry seems to have more influence on proliferation. T-cells appear to prefer smaller geometries during initial stages of culture while towards the end of the culture size becomes less significant to cell proliferation. The parameters tested in this study have significant influences on T-cell growth and are necessary to consider when designing and constructing expansion systems for antigen specific T lymphocytes. This is important when culturing T-cells for immunotherapeutic applications where antigen specificity, T-cell maturation and function should remain unaffected during culture.
Keywords: T-cell culture, immunotherapy, material testing, geometry
Abstract: Polymers exhibiting cell-selective effects represent an extensive research field with high relevance for biomedical applications e.g. in the cardiovascular field supporting re-endothelialization while suppressing smooth muscle cell overgrowth. Such an endothelial cell-selective effect could be recently demonstrated for a copolyetheresterurethane (PDC) containing biodegradable poly(p-dioxanone) and poly(ε-caprolactone) segments, which selectively enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) while suppressing the attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMC). In this study we investigated the influence of the fibre orientation (random and aligned) and fibre diameter (2 μm and 500 nm) of electrospun PDC scaffolds on the adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis…of HUVEC and SMC. Adhesion, viability and proliferation of HUVEC was diminished when the fibre diameter was reduced to a submicron scale, while the orientation of the microfibres did only slightly influence the cellular behaviour. In contrast, a submicron fibre diameter improved SMC viability. In conclusion, PDC scaffolds with micron-sized single fibres could be promising candidate materials for cell-selective stent coatings.
Keywords: Endothelialization, drug eluting stent, degradable polymer, electrospinning, cell selectivity
Abstract: In vitro cultured autologous chondrocytes can be used for implantation to support cartilage repair. For this purpose, a very small number of autologous cells harvested from a biopsy have to be expanded in monolayer culture. Commercially available polymer surfaces lead to chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Hence, the demanding need for optimized polymers and surface topologies supporting chondrocytes' differentiated phenotypes in vitro arises. In this study we explored the effect of tailored cell culture plate inserts prepared from polystyrene (PS) and polyether imide (PEI) exhibiting three different roughness levels (R0, RI, RII) on chondrocyte morphology, metabolism and gene expression profile. As a control,…commercially available tissue culture plastic (TCP) dishes were included. Primary porcine articular chondrocytes were seeded on tailored PS and PEI inserts with three different roughness levels. The metabolic activity of the chondrocytes was determined after 24 hours using alamar blue assay. Chondrocyte gene expression profiles (aggrecan, type I and type II collagen) were monitored after 48 hours using Real Time Detection (RTD)-PCR. Chondrocytes cultured on PS and PEI surfaces formed cell clusters after 24 and 48 hours, which was not observed on TCP. The metabolic activity of chondrocytes cultured on PS was lower than of chondrocytes cultured on PEI, but also lower than on TCP. Gene expression analyses revealed an elevated expression of cartilage-specific aggrecan and an impaired expression of both collagen types by chondrocytes on PS and PEI compared with TCP. In summary, PEI is a biocompatible biomaterial suitable for chondrocyte culturing, which can be further chemically functionalized for generating specific surface interactions or covalent binding of biomolecules.