Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 49, issue 1-4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Increasing blood and plasma viscosity is generally associated with pathological conditions, and increased cardiovascular risk, a perception based in part on studies where blood viscosity is increased to extreme values attained by hemoconcentration. Present studies, supported by epidemiological studies in humans, show that moderate increases in Hct improve cardiovascular function and vice versa. This result is due to the nonlinear regulation of peripheral vascular resistance arising from the increased production of nitric oxide following the increase of shear stress on the vascular wall due to increasing blood viscosity. Similar effects are found in when plasma viscosity is increased in the…extremely hemodiluted circulation. In both cases there is an effect at the arteriolar/capillary level, leading to a condition of improved microvascular function and supra perfusion that facilitates clearance of metabolic waste products, while maintaining oxygen delivery. Application of these findings to the design of viscogenic plasma expanders suggests a new approach for the treatment of hemorrhage that in part replaces the use of blood transfusions, making it feasible to lower the transfusion trigger to levels below than normally considered safe.
Abstract: Purpose: To assess the added value of depicting tumour microvascularisation, using dynamic contrast enhanced (CEUS), during radiofrequency ablation, as a means of achieving a complete ablation (CA) of malignant liver lesions. Material and methods: 18 consecutive patients (2 female, 16 male, age range 52–79 years, mean 64.1 ± 9.9 years) with 22 histologically confirmed hepatic malignancies (HCC: n = 10, liver metastases: n = 12) underwent RFA. Before RFA treatment, conventional US, CEUS and contrast enhanced CT (ceCT) of the liver were performed. During the CT-guided RFA procedure, CEUS was performed to asses the ablation defect. In case of partial…ablation a subsequent ablation was performed with a corrected electrode position and evaluated again using CEUS. This procedure was repeated until a CA was achieved. The number of ablations per patient was recorded. Secondary efficacy parameters assessed were lesion detectability in the different imaging modalities and contrast phases. Results: Overall intraprocedural CEUS led to a change in therapeutic management in 59% of cases, resulting in 17 additional ablation cycles. Lesion detectability during CT Fluoroscopy was the sole statistical significant predictor of incomplete ablations (p = 0.008). The mean number of ablations for detectable lesions was 1.27 vs. 2.27 ablations for not detectable lesions (p = 0.002). The combined CT and CEUS RFA procedure led to a CA for all treated lesions in follow up 3 month post intervention. Conclusion: CEUS does allow a reliable and immediate assessment of therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous RFA procedures of malignant liver lesions, through the continuous dynamic evaluation of tumour microcirculation.
Abstract: Purpose: The objective was the evaluation of microcirculation in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) after intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) application of contrast agent during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using drug-eluting beads (DEB). Patients and methods: Eleven patients with HCC underwent CEUS directly before and immediately after DEB-TACE. The sonographic contrast agent was injected through the microcatheter intraarterially and intravenously. The grade of hypervascularization was evaluated before Bead application. The percentage of devascularization after Bead application was calculated and quantitative devascularization was carried out using time intensity curves (TIC). These results were compared to postinterventional angiography…after Bead application and postprocedural computed tomography. Results: The hypervascularization of HCC was marginal improved after i.a. contrast application compared to i.v. application (p = 0.163). The reduction of vascularization after Bead application correlated significant between i.a. and i.v. contrast application (p = 0.007) and decreased significant using TIC analysis (p = 0.003). Postinterventional angiography related with CEUS after i.a. sonographic contrast agent application. Extrahepatic tumor-feeding arteries were detected by a mismatch between i.a. and i.v. CEUS in one case. Conclusion: Quantification of the reduction of microvascularization using TIC analysis may be a valuable periinterventional tool during DEB-TACE. Intraprocedural CEUS with i.a. and i.v. ultrasound contrast agent injection may help finding extrahepatic tumor-feeding arteries.
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate, whether image fusion of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with CT or MRI affects the diagnosis and characterization of liver lesions or the therapeutic strategy of surgical or interventional procedures compared to the preliminary diagnosis. Material and methods: In a retrospective study the image fusion scans of CEUS with contrast enhanced CT or MRI of 100 patients (71 male, mean age 59 years, 0.3–85 years) with benign or malignant liver lesions were evaluated. Fundamental B-scan, color Doppler imaging and CEUS were performed in all patients by an experienced examiner using a multifrequency convex transducer (1–5 MHz, LOGIQ 9/GE)…and volume navigation (Vnav). After a bolus injections of up to 2.4 ml SonoVue® (BRACCO, Italy) digital raw data was stored as cine-loops up to 5 min. In 74 patients, CEUS was fused with a pre-existing ceCT, in 26 patients a ceMRI was used. Results: In all 100 patients (100%) the image quality in all modalities (ceCT, ceMRI and CEUS) was excellent or with only minor diagnostic limitations. Regarding the number of lesions revealed in image fusion of CEUS/ceCT/ceMRI and the preceding diagnostic method, concordant results were found in 84 patients. In 12 patients, additional lesions were found using fusion imaging causing subsequently a change of the therapeutical strategy. In 15 out of 21 patients with either concordant or discordant results regarding the number of lesions, image fusion allowed a definite diagnosis due to a continuous documentation of the microcirculation of the tumor and its contrast enhancement. A significant coherency (p < 0.05) among image fusion with either ceCT or ceMRI and CEUS and a subsequent change of therapeutic strategy was found. Conclusion: Image fusion with volume navigation (VNav) of CEUS with ceCT or ceMRI frequently allows a definite localization and diagnosis of hepatic lesions in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma or metastatic diseases. This might cause a change of the therapeutic strategy in many patients with hepatic lesions.
Abstract: Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) represents a new diagnostic tool to localize pathological parathyroid glands. The aim of this study was to differentiate the capability of CEUS as first-line or complimentary modality for the detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. Methods: Sixty patients with pHPT were admitted to the University Hospital Regensburg between 8/2009 and 3/2011. Conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using a linear probe (6–9 MHz, LOGIQ E9/GE) was performed in all patients preoperatively. The sensitivity of CEUS was analyzed to determine its potential as first line or complimentary diagnostic procedure. Results: Using CEUS 98.3% of all pathological glands could be…detected in the correct quadrant whereas conventional ultrasonography (70%) (p < 0.001) revealed less sensitivity. In all patients CEUS indicated a correct side localization of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. The advantage of CEUS was the detection of the early dynamic on the capillary level immediately after contrast injection. Overall, CEUS permit minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy in 45 patients. 15 patients required conventional procedure due to concomitant goiter. All patients showed normal calcium and parathyroid hormone serum levels three months after surgery. Conclusions: CEUS represents a highly sensitive diagnostic modality for localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT. Nevertheless, it can only be recommended as first-line diagnostic procedure in specialized clinical centers with experienced investigators.