Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 41, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: People of medical vocation have felt a strong attraction to arts for centuries, sometimes even developing into strong bonds. The subject of present essay is to enumerate – at times, analyzing the possible interactions of – correlations of the relationship between blood circulation and musical arts. The love of arts, consumption of arts and the creation of art can in some way contribute to a more balanced, wholesome life, to spiritual and intellectual harmony. These factors in turn can aid medical activity – not only the curing of the patients, but also the doctor-patient relationship, education and scientific research.
Abstract: We hypothesized that abnormalities in hemorheologic parameters, including vessel diameter, flow velocity, and whole blood viscosity (WBV), would be present in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and would correlate with microvascular abnormalities (vasculopathy). Using the Rheolog™, we obtained WBV profiles, measured at shear rates of 1–1,000 s−1 , for 10 AD subjects and age matched non-AD controls. Vessel diameter, flow velocity, and microvascular abnormalities were quantified using computer-assisted intravital microscopy (CAIM) of the conjunctival microcirculation. A Severity Index (SI), scale 0–15, was computed to reflect degree/severity of vasculopathy. AD subjects compared to controls had significantly higher WBV (3.96±0.29 cP vs. 3.34±0.05 cP,…sheared at 300 s−1 ; P<0.05) and SI (7.00±2.36 vs. 0.30±0.70; P<0.05). WBV was correlated (ρs =0.648; P<0.05) with SI in AD subjects. These results strongly suggest the simultaneous involvement of hemorheologic abnormalities and systemic vasculopathy in AD.
Abstract: Our aim was to analyze rheological properties of blood and plasma in patients (n=31) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after five nights of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy as compared with a well-matched control group (n=19). Rheology measurements included blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte elongation and erythrocyte deformability variables specific to the aggregation process. The mean whole blood viscosity of the OSA groups was 18.6% higher than that of the control group (P<0.001), plasma viscosity was 7.2% higher (P<0.001), and the blood count was 6% higher (P<0.001). The corrected viscosity of the OSA group was elevated 6.6%…(P<0.05) and the aggregation index was 9.3% higher (P<0.05) relative to the control group. Aggregation half-time of the OSA group was 23.5% shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Following CPAP therapy, the rheological variables of the OSA group were significantly reduced: whole blood viscosity was 10.5% lower (P<0.001), plasma viscosity was 4.1% lower (P<0.05), corrected blood viscosity was 4.8% lower (P<0.05), and the aggregation index was 7% lower (P<0.05), while the aggregation half-time was increased 25.4% (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between rheologic and polysomnographic variables for the OSA group. Therefore, five consecutive nights of CPAP therapy improved blood rheological properties in patients with OSA. These findings may help to determine cardiovascular prognoses in these patients.
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of resistance exercise training (RET) performed at different intensities (moderate and submaximal) on red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation. 14 young male subjects were divided into two groups: Moderate intensity group performed 3 sets of 12 repetitions at an intensity corresponding to 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) whereas submaximal intensity group performed 3 sets of 6 repetitions at 85% of 1RM for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained just before and immediately after the RET on the first and last day of the program. Hemorheological parameters were determined using…an ektacytometer (LORCA), hematological parameters were evaluated by a hematology analyzer. RBC deformability was found to increase in both groups immediately after the RET but this elevation was significant only in the moderate intensity group on the first day. RBC aggregation significantly increased in both groups immediately after the RET on the first and last day of the program. It is concluded that RET performed at an intensity corresponding to 70% of 1RM alters RBC deformability more than training performed at 85% of 1RM. On the other hand, both training protocols affect RBC aggregation in a similar way.
Abstract: Aim: The present study evaluates the effects of irradiation on the blood dynamics. Materials and methods: Thirty-six volunteers providing written consent participated. A blood sample was transferred into three tubes containing CPDA-1 solution while another blood sample was transferred into three tubes containing heparin. Each tube containing CPDA-1 solution was paired with another tube containing heparin. The first pair was not irradiated, not stored and analyzed immediately (Group 1). The second pair was not irradiated, stored and analyzed at seven days (Group 2). The third pair was irradiated, stored and analyzed at seven days (Group 3). The blood count…was performed and the blood viscosity was determined. Results: The mean hemoglobin contents were 126 g/l for Group 1, 128 g/l for Group 2 and 129 g/l for Group 3. For the mean hemoglobin contents, the difference between Group 1 and Group 3 (P<0.001) and Group 2 and Group 3 (P=0.01) were significant. The mean red blood cell volumes were 81.8 fl for Group 1, 82.1 fl for Group 2 and 82.3 fl for Group 3. For the mean red blood cell volumes, the difference between Group 1 and Group 2 (P=0.003) and Group 1 and Group 3 (P=0.006) were significant. The mean blood viscosities were 2.2 mPa s for Group 1, 2.8 mPa s for Group 2 and 3.2 mPa s for Group 3. For the mean blood viscosities, the difference between Group 1 and Group 2 (P<0.001), Group 1 and Group 3 (P<0.001) and Group 2 and Group 3 (P=0.004) were significant. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the recommended doses of irradiation for the blood products to be used in attempt to prevent the transfusion associated graft versus host disease leads to marked alterations in the blood dynamics and might decrease the viability of the red blood cells following transfusion.
Keywords: Transfusion associated graft versus host disease, irradiation, blood dynamics
Abstract: Blood samples used in hemorheological studies may be stored for a period of time, the effects of storage have yet to be fully explored. This study evaluated the effects of storage temperature (i.e., 4°C or 25°C) and duration on RBC deformability and aggregation for blood from healthy controls and from septic patients. Our results indicate that for normal blood, RBC deformability over 0.3–50 Pa is stable up to six hours regardless of storage temperature; at eight hours there were no significant differences in EI but SS1/2 calculated via a Lineweaver–Burk method indicated impaired deformability. Storage temperature affected the stable…period for RBC aggregation: the safe time was shorter at 25°C whereas at 4°C aggregation was stable up to 12 hours. Interestingly, blood samples from septic patients were less affected by storage. Blood can thus be stored at 25°C for up to six hours for deformability studies, but should be limited to four hours for RBC aggregation; storage at 4°C may prolong the storage period up to 12 hours for aggregation but not deformability measurements. Therefore, the time period between sampling and measurement should be as short as possible and reported together with results.
Keywords: Aggregation, blood storage, deformability, temperature
Abstract: Introduction: There is an association between rheological alterations and lower extremity deep vein thrombosis, although no research has been carried out regarding the possible influence of rheological alterations in the development of venous thrombosis in the upper limbs. Materials and methods: We have determined in 54 patients (23 male, 31 female; aged 35±11 years) with primary upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT), and in a well matched control group of 87 subjects (41 male, 46 female; aged 36±12 years) the rheological profile (blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability) along with plasma lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides)…and body mass index (BMI). Thrombophilic defects (antithrombin, protein C, protein S deficiencies, factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation and antiphospholipid antibodies) were also determined. Results: No statistical differences were observed in any of the rheological parameters analyzed (p>0.05), as well as in plasma lipids and BMI (p>0.05) when cases and controls were compared. In investigating the associated factors, we found that more than 60% of events could be explained through effort (28%), thrombophilic defects (19%) and oral contraceptives (26%). Obesity and hyperlipidaemia were not associated with primary UEDVT. Conclusion: Hemorheological alterations do not seem to contribute from a pathogenic point of view to the development of thrombotic events in this infrequent venous location, which is in accordance both with the absence of cardiovascular risk factors and the high shear forces existing in the upper extremity.
Keywords: Hemorheology, upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis