Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 4, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: During intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis, intermediates and degradation products with potent effects on vascular tone and permeability are generated. They act predominantly in the pulmonary circulation and cause vasoconstriction and vascular leakage. Their effects are mediated partially by platelets and neutrophils and partially by direct stimulation of the pulmonary arachidonic acid metabolism, resulting in the generation of vasoactive prostanoids. Thus the activation of the coagulation system may result in changes of tissue perfusion even in the absence of fibrin clots and platelet aggregates.
Abstract: The effects of the defibrinating enzymes, anorod and batroxobin, on blood coagulation and rheology are reviewed. Decrease in plasma viscosity lowers high-shear blood viscosity, while decrease in red cell aggregation reduces low-shear blood viscosity to a greater extent. Theoretically therefore these agents may be beneficial in low-flow states. Their effects on blood flow and on clinical events in the coronary, cerebral, retinal, renal and lower limb circulations are reviewed. There is some evidence that during acute defibrination microcirculatory flow is disturbed, and acute clinical deterioration has been observed. However chronic defibrination has been shown to improve blood flow and to…prevent thrombosis.
Abstract: After intravenous application of streptokinase or urokinase fibrinogenolysis takes place with the result of a reduction in blood and plasma viscosity and with a significant decline in the velocity of red cell aggregate formation and shear resistance of red cell aggregates. In addition, a drop on apparent blood viscosity at all shear rates is found. Preliminary data concerning the influence of heparin and coumarin therapy on blood rheology have to be reproduced by other laboratories.
Abstract: Elevated levels of pathological (as in myelomas) as well as physiological (fibrinogen, lipoproteins) plasma protein concentrations can increase blood or plasma viscosities above the normal levels. This in turn leads to a decrease in tissue perfusion and in turn to typical neurological, cardiac, ocular, or peripheral-vascular sequela. Therapeutic plasmapheresis can very easily and effectively reduce the excessive protein concentrations and thus reverse the course of hyper viscosity. The treatment is thus indicated in such syndromes as Waldenström’s disease, multiple myeloma, and hyperlipidemia. However, plasmapheresis does not influence the underlying disease process. Therefore, the extracorporeal removal of proteins must be combined…with appropriate pharmacological therapy, especially to avoid an overshoot stimulation of protein synthesis. - The possible future relevance of cascade filtration and immunoadsorption to plasma exchange is discussed.
Abstract: Disorders in coronary microcirculation are mainly due to vascular diseases and to rheological abnormalities. In vascular diseases (hypertensive microangiopathy, systemic immune complex vasculitis etc.) resting coronary blood flow may be normal, whereas coronary reserve is markedly restricted. In rheological diseases (paraproteinemia, polyglobulia, hyperlipoproteinemia etc.) resting coronary blood flow is mostly decreased and the coronary reserve is also limited. By normalization of the vascular component of coronary resistance (immune complex vasculitis) considerable improvement in coronary hemodynamics may be achieved (steroids, immune suppressive agents etc.) By normalization of the rheological component of coronary resistance (paraproteinemia, polyglobulia etc.) improvement in coronary hemodynamics can…be achieved comparable with vascular diseases (blood letting, plasmapheresis etc.)
Abstract: The most common pulmonary diseases are chronic bronchitis, lung fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases comprise those conditions which are accompanied by flow-limitation of the airways and loss of elastic recoil of the lung parenchyma. The altered function causes characteristic changes of the lung vasculature and the pulmonary hemodynamics. The pathological result of all mechanisms involved are hypoxemia. The hemorheological situation depends on the chronic oxygen deficiency and their consequences to red cell and thrombocyte function. Based on datas of some preliminary studies in patients with longlasting hypoxemia due to chronic lung disease there will be given a critical review over…the literature.
Abstract: 1. Effects of clinical interest could clearly be demonstrated both by hypofibrinogenization and hemodilution. 2. The clinical efficacy of hypofibrinogenization could not been established by clinical trials. 3. At the present time there are no studies on hemodilution available. 4. The simultaneous application of hypofibrinating enzymes and hemodilution seems to be clinical efficient. 5. The true mode of in-vivo action as well as the clinical importance of the so called “hemorheological active drugs” is questionable and unknown respectively. Effects of clinical interest could clearly be demonstrated both by hypofibrinogenization and hemodilution.…The clinical efficacy of hypofibrinogenization could not been established by clinical trials. At the present time there are no studies on hemodilution available. The simultaneous application of hypofibrinating enzymes and hemodilution seems to be clinical efficient. The true mode of in-vivo action as well as the clinical importance of the so called “hemorheological active drugs” is questionable and unknown respectively.