Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 13, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Micropipette methods can be used to investigate the mechanical and adhesive properties of blood cells. Although the procedures are generally technically demanding, unique information on the specific properties of individual cells can be determined, not readily available by other techniques. For red blood cells, the overall deformability (resistance to flow into ~3μm pipettes) can be tested, as well as more specific measurements of the contributing factors; cell geometry and membrane visco-elasticity. White blood cells and, rarely, platelets have also been subjected to analysis of their resistance to deformation. Cell-cell adhesion can be investigated, either by using two pipettes to bring…cells together or by using a single pipette to manipulate a cell into contact with a coated, adhesive surface. Most measurements have centred on quantitation of the force required to disrupt adhesion. Such measurements allow insight into the factors which determine circulatory behaviour, and evaluation of the pathological changes which occur in circulatory disorders. In sickle cell disease and malaria, e.g., red cell deformability and geometry, membrane visco-elasticity and cell adhesiveness have all been investigated, while for leukocytes, the rheological effects of neutrophil activation, which may influence inflammatory and ischaemic processes, have been quantitated.
Abstract: Conjunctival video-capillaroscopy was used to investigate the effect of oral contraceptives on the conjunctival microcirculation of 21 healthy female subjects under normal and post ischemic conditions. The study consisted of an experimental group of ten females using oral contraceptives containing 30 μg Ethinyl Estradiol, and a control group of eleven females not using oral contraceptives. Capillary red blood cell velocity was significantly lower (35%; p<0.05) in the experimental group compared to the control group both in normal and post ischemic conditions. However, contraceptives did not seem to affect conjunctival microcirculatory autoregulation. Additional measurements included hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte rigidity, plasma…viscosity and spontaneous thrombocyte aggregation. Significant differences were found in hematocrit, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and spontaneous thrombocyte aggregation (p<0.01) where values were increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The data found in this study suggest that Ethinyl Estradiol may be a potential risk factor in microvascular pathologies.
Abstract: Seventy patients suffering from primary hyperlipoproteinemia (PHLP), 36 with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), 18 with familial combined hyperlipemia (FCHL), 16 with primary hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) and a control group of healthy individuals, similar to the patient groups in age range and sex distribution, were tested for the following hemorheological variables: Erythrocyte Deformability (FI); Erythrocyte Aggregability at stasis (MEAo) and at low shear rate (MEA1 ) and Fibrinogen (Fbg), with respect to serum lipids and the lipid content of the erythrocyte membrane (cholesterol/phospholipids ratio; CHOL/PL). An increase in FI, MEAo and MEA1 was observed in all the PHLP groups. In addition,…all the patient groups except PHTG showed an increased fibrinogen concentration. Several statistically significant correlations between plasma lipids, erythrocyte membrane lipids and hemorheological parameters were observed. This indicates that changes in the lipids, be they plasma or membrane lipids, influence the hemorheological alterations found in this study. These alterations can contribute heavily to a circulatory slowdown, leading to a worsening of the ischemic disorders in these patients.
Keywords: Red blood cell lipids, Hemorheology, Primary hyperlipoproteinemia
Abstract: Erythrocyte filterability and several hematological parameters were determined in the blood samples obtained from the carotid artery and internal jugular vein of guinea pigs during neurosurgical laser application. Erythrocyte filterability in the blood obtained from the internal jugular vein during laser irradiation was significantly impaired. Intravascular hemolysis was also evident as hematocrit value and red cell counts were decreased, while hemoglobin value remained unchanged. Studies in the control group confirmed that the surgical procedure without laser application had no similar effects. It is proposed that the hemorheological alterations under the influence of surgical laser application may play role in certain…complications of laser surgery.
Abstract: Rheological factors might be involved in the adverse effects of cyclosporin therapy. The use of cyclosporin is associated with a lower erythrocyte deformability. In order to investigate whether a decreased erythrocyte deformability was accompanied by changes in whole blood viscosity, measurements were done in patients in which a lower erythrocyte deformability was found. Twenty nine stable renal transplant recipients, ten receiving cyclosporin, ten cyclosporin-prednisolone and nine azathioprin-prednisolone were supplemented in a double blind cross-over study with fish oil and corn oil for a period of four months each. No difference was found in whole blood viscosity between the patient groups…with different immunosuppressive regimens, which means whole blood viscosity measurements did not detect decreased erythrocyte deformability. No decrease in whole blood viscosity was found in renal transplant recipients after supplementation of fish oil and corn oil, while erythrocyte deformability increased in the cyclosporin-treated patients. Neither were plasma viscosity and the fibrinogen level influenced by fish or corn oil. Whole blood and plasma viscosity are not influenced by the use of cyclosporin. It is concluded that whole blood viscosity measurements are not sufficient to detect changes in erythrocyte deformability and therefore separate measurements of erythrocyte deformability are indicated.
Keywords: renal transplant, cyclosporin, fish oil, viscosity, erythrocyte deformability
Abstract: A technique has been tested for producing maximal trypsin digestion of the glycocalyx of the human red cell as an aid for the study of the cellular factors that influence rouleaux formation. Measurements have been made of erythrocyte deformability, volume, electrophoretic mobility and dextran-induced aggregation (interpretted from low shear rate viscosity and microscopic observation) before and after trypsin treatment. While deformability and size were not affected, electrophoretic mobility fell and aggregation increased. It was found that the changes induced by trypsin were complete within about half an hour.
Abstract: Isolated and washed human erythrocytes were incubated with various concentrations of nitrate, nitrite or trinitrine. Erythrocyte deformability based on filtration index, membrane chemical composition evaluated with free cholesterol (FC), phospholipids (PL) and proteins, and erythrocyte changes in methemoglobin, malondialdehyde, cAMP and cGMP productions were the parameters investigated thereafter. Nitrate and trinitrine have improved erythrocyte deformability, effect related to modified (FC+PL)/proteins ratios and likely enhanced protein binding to membrane while nitrite has induced a hig methemoglobinemia that may have blotted out this positive effect.
Keywords: nitrate, nitrite, trinitrine, deformability, erythrocyte, human
Abstract: Hematological and hemorheological changes were investigated in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis, induced by bile duct ligation. 5 weeks after the ligation secondary biliary cirrhosis was accompanied by macrocytic anemia, reticulocytosis, and leukocytosis. Plasma viscosity was unchanged while whole blood viscosity was decreased because of the low hematocrit. Erythrocyte deformability as assessed by filtration was unchanged. A one week treatment with S-adenosylmethionine had no influence.
Abstract: Beside plasma viscosity and the functional state of the vessel wall, placental perfusion is determined by the concentration and behaviour of the blood cells. In order to evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes to placental flow in late pregnancy, we applied a new filtration technique allowing to analyze the passages of erythrocytes through a single pore. As a parameter of decreased deformability in late pregnancy, we found a significant increase in transit time (22.69 +/− 1.60 ms vs 24.03 +/− 2.40 ms; pore size 4.1 μm; hydrostatic pressure 100 Pa) correlating with the mean cell volume (r=0.763). Due to their size…and rigidity, their property to adhere to altered endothelium and to release radicals and mediators, granulocytes were the second point of interest to investigate in late pregnancy. Granulocytes were more adherent in vitro when stimulated with PMA, FMLP or in the absence of these mediators. This was shown for BSA- and fibronectin- coated wells (BSA: PMA 72.6% vs 67.2%, FMLP 43.4% vs 36.1%, unstimulated 26.5% vs 15.4%; fibronectin: PMA 71.6% vs 66.7%, FMLP 44.7% vs 31.1%, unstimulated 25.7% vs 18.2%). Transit times of granulocytes through 8 μm pores were significantly shorter in the pregnant group at 400 Pa (5.02 +/− 0.50 ms vs 5.49 +/− 0.74 ms), nearly identical at 200 Pa (9.34 +/− 1.79 ms vs 9.57 +/− 1.65 ms) and impossible to measure at 100 Pa (frequent obstruction). Luminol-enhanced whole blood chemiluminescence of unstimulated granulocytes was decreased in the pregnant group (0.19 counts/cell/2s vs 0.33 counts/cell/2s) but exceeded values of the control group when stimulated with PMA or FMLP (PMA: 20.13 counts/cell/2s vs 15.90 counts/cell/2s; FMLP: 2.35 counts/cell/2s vs 1.94 counts/cell/2s). Our results may indicate that in times of insufficient placental flow, as it is seen in hypertension-related gestational disorders, a decreased erythrocyte deformability as well as an enhanced adhesivity and chemiluminescence of activated granulocytes may perpetuate and aggravate placental malperfusion.