Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 12, issue 4
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Ten trained male volunteers have performed a 90 minutes exercise on a Monark ergometer cycle, at 55 % of their maximal aerobic power, during two exercise sessions, one without drinking and the other with a hydric intake (8 ml of water per watt). A blood sample is withdrawn before and after the exercise. Rheological properties have been investigated using viscometry, aggregametry and filtrometry. A significant increase in hematocrit and plasma protein concentration, as a consequence of hemoconcentration is only observed after the exercise without drinking. The increase in plasma viscosity is more marked after exercise without drinking. At a…hematocrit of 45 %, blood viscosities at 1 s−1 and 20 s−1 are significantly increased after the exercise without drinking. After the exercise with drinking, blood viscosity at 20 s−1 remains significantly higher. Blood thixotropy and viscoelasticity are not modified either by the exercise or the hydric intake. Aggregametric and viscometric parameters are significantly impaired after the exercise without drinking but not after the exercise with drinking. Thus, erythrocyte aggregation is only increased after the exercise without drinking in correlation with the increase in fibrinogen. The significant increase in both parameters, viscometric index of deformability (p < 0.005) and filtration viscosity (p < 0.02) after the exercise without drinking indicates a reduced cell deformability. After the exercise with drinking, only the viscometric index of deformability, correlated with the lactate concentration, is significantly higher (p < 0.05). It therefore seems that the hydric intake avoids some of the hemorheological perturbations linked to this type of exercise.
Abstract: Exercise changes many body functions including blood rheology. Two aspects are particularly relevant for peripheral vascular disease (PVD): lack of exercise is a risk factor for PVD, and regular exercise is a therapy for PVD. In order to clarify the role of blood rheology in all this, we have conducted a number of independent trials. Our results show that acute physical stress leads to a marked viscid-alion of blood. A relative lack of exercise is associated with low and being an athlete with high blood fluidity. This does not apply to purely power trained men. Daily exercise improves the initially…normal blood rheology of volunteers and normalize the initially abnormal blood rheology of PVD patients. Both cellular and plasmatic components are involved. We conclude that exercise has complex effects on blood rheology which can be used in treating PVD.
Abstract: In patients affected by Peripheral Obliterative Arterial Disease (POAD), an increase of blood viscosity was observed in basal conditions in blood samples collected from brachial veins. To investigate the role of regional haemorheological changes in venous and arterial blood during isotonic exercise, an experimental model was set up in POAD patients. The exercise was performed on a pedal ergometer with a dynamic brake until the onset of limb claudication. The evaluation of haemorheological parameters in femoral artery, in femoral vein and in brachial vein was performed before and after the exercise. Whole blood viscosity at various shear rates, whole blood…filterability were controlled and correlated to the variations of oxygen transfer, of acid-base equilibrium, of lactic acid production, of fibrinolysis and of biological markers of platelet and leukocyte activation (beta-thromboglobulin and lactoferrin) in sample coming from regional artery and vein and from systemic vein. The results confirmed that the exercise induced an impairment on local blood fluidity with simultaneous reduction of venous pO2 and increase of lactic acid production. Beta-thromboglobulin and lactoferrin increased to indicate the activation of platelets and leukocytes; also an increase of the fibrinolysis was observed. Subsequently, on the same experimental model, also the role of intracellular Ca++ content of blood cells was investigated. The results seems to show that, after exercise, the intraerythrocytary Ca++ content increases. Considering that Ca++ plays an important role on cell membrane fluidity, the worsening of blood viscosity could be explained also by reduction of red cell deformability due to the increased Ca++ in the erythrocytes.
Abstract: The distributions and associations with cardiovascular risk factors of four haemorheological variables (haematocrit, white blood cell count, red blood cell aggregation measured by the Myrenne photometric method, and plasma fibrinogen level) were studied in a random population sample of 915 men and women aged 25–64 years in North Glasgow, Scotland (the Second W.H.O.-MONICA Survey). Each rheological variable showed significant correlations with cardiovascular risk factors (especially cigarette-smoking) and with the other rheological variables. Multiple regression models are presented, which account for 24–35% of variance in each rheological variable in this population.
Keywords: Glasgow MONICA study, hematocrit, fibrinogen, leucocytes, red cell aggregation
Abstract: The relationship between plasma viscosity and various lipid and lipoprotein variables was studied in a large sample of the population. We found a substantial. positive linear association between plasma viscosity and total cholesterol and apoprotein B, and a small negative linear association with HDL cholesterol, and with apoprotein A1. Polynomial regression showed a strong quadratic relationship with HDL cholesterol in men. whereas no other variable revealed an appreciable deviation from linearity. The covariables age, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index. and alcohol consumption had only a small, if any, confounding effect. However. after adjustment for total serum protein a…remarkable change in some of the associations was seen. We conclude that rheological mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic syndromes in hyperlipidemias.
Keywords: Plasma viscosity, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, epidemiological study
Abstract: In 2821 participants of the Aachen study plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin-M, α2-macroglobulin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentration has been measured in order to evaluate the influence of proteins and lipoproteins on plasma viscosity. The influence of molecular concentration, resp. concentration of molecular complexes can be estimated in plasma viscosity by stepwise regression analysis. All selected factors determine and, thus, characterize plasma viscosity. Negative correlation has only been observed in HDL concentration, i.e., with increasing HDL cholesterol concentration plasma viscosity decreases. The biological and fluid dynamical cause for this rare phenomenon is discussed.
Keywords: Plasma viscosity, plasma lipids, plasma proteins, Aachen study
Abstract: Blood rheology measurement (whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte viscosity, hematocrit and fibrinogen) total cholesterol and triglycerides, were performed in 168 obese children (84 males and 84 females) and in 86 non obese children (45 males and 41 females) . In 25 obese children (13 males and 12 females) submitted to a hypocaloric diet (1300–1400 kcalories) the same laboratory tests were performed after two months. Our data show that, in a large sample of obese children, the erythrocyte deformability does not differ from non obese children. Hemorheological alterations of obese children (whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, haematocrit and…fibrinogen) are not affected by slimming.
Abstract: Hemorheological and biochemical investigations were performed in 274 patients with hypertension. Whole blood viscosity was measured at 8 different shear rates and was categorized as per individual's blood group. Plasma viscosity, red cell rigidity, platelet aggregation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hematocrit, fibrinogen, and serum triglyceride were also studied. We have found that in case of blood group “O” increase in the whole blood viscosity was maximum while in blood group “B” it was minimum. There was no significant difference in the plasma viscosity among different blood group. It shows that red blood cell is one of the major contributing factor for…change in whole blood viscosity. This change in the whole blood viscosity among different blood groups could be due to difference in the charge density of different blood groups and/or particular blood group is more susceptible for change in the blood viscosity. When whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, red cell rigidity, fibrinogen and triglyceride parameters were compared with normal controls, they were found to be significantly elevated. There was no significant difference in hematocrit and platelet aggregation.
Abstract: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific laboratory test that is widely used by clinicians in their assessment of a disease state. The phenomenon of erythrocyte sedimentation is largely dependent on the concentration of plasma proteins and their interactions with erythrocyte surfaces. The use of the ESR in sickle cell anemia is impaired by the abnormal deformability of sickled cells. In an attempt to bypass this phenomenon, a mixed erythrocyte sedimentation rate (M-ESR) has been developed. In the M-ESR the pathological erythrocytes of sickle cell anemia are substituted for normal erythrocytes. Although less than 60% of symptomatic patients with…sickle cell anemia had an elevated ESR, 100% had an elevated M-ESR.
Abstract: A three–week investigation was carried out on hemorheological and coagulative indices in rats exposed to carbon monoxide (CO). Results showed that in CO group, clotting times (tG″,tG′) were prolonged with lowered viscous modulus G″ and elastic modulus G′ of thrombus at thirty minute coagulation as well as platelet count (BP). However, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity (BV) in this group were significantly increased. No difference in plasma viscosity (PV) was found between two groups. A correlation was established for the parameters, namely, G′=173.6+100.3PV−5.1Hct−6.6tG′. On the contrary, no alteration in Hct, G″, G′, platelet aggregation activity, clotting time of plasma was…found for blood exposed to CO in vitro. But it confirmed there was a strong negative correlation between Hct and G″ (r=−0.938), and G′ (r=−0.974) respectively. These results suggest that: (1) Carbon monoxide does not directly result in changes in thrombotic activity, but it can stimulate the growth of red blood cell by hypoxemia, (2) High Hct is responsible for the reduction of G″ and G′ in CO group.