Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 11, issue 6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Plasma viscosity and the viscous component of blood viscosity were measured in an oscillatory capillary viscometer (OCR-D) and compared to the blood viscosity determined in the Contraves LS-30 machine at identical nominal shear rates and to plasma viscosity readings obtained in the Coulter Harkness capillary viscometer. The OCR-D system yields lower reproducibility compared to the other methods. It also gives lower absolute viscosity readings for blood at low shear rates. Hemoconcentration, as induced in vivo by a standard ergometer exercise, is less strongly reflected in the low shear blood viscosity data from the OCR-D system compared to the analogue results…obtained in the LS-30. These findings suggest, that the OCR-D method is less reproducible and not directly comparable with the “conventional” methods. Possibly the latter are best for routine while oscillatory methods may give a more detailed analysis of specific questions.
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to correlate, on intact red blood cells (RBC) , deformability and membrane fluidity. RBC deformability was measured by their filterability through a 4.8 um diameter pore filter and membrane fluidity was tested with trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPR), a specific plasma membrane fluorescent probe. RBC were untreated or experimentaly modified according to Shinitzky's method with 25-OH-cholesterol (25OH-chol) and with cholesterol-hemisuccinate (CHS). These cholesterol analogs are known as rigidifying agents of the membranes. Whereas 25OH-chol treatment did not induce any change of fluidity and filterability on intact RBC, CHS treatment provoked most modifications on intact RBC: it induced…a membrane fluidization (as compared to control cells) and a spherocytosis with a 5.5% increase of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), without any alteration of filterability measurements. Concurrently fluorescence polarization measurements on ghosts obtained from CHS treated cells, which retain hemoglobin, did not show significative fluidity modification whereas 25OH-chol treatment decreased it. We conclude that there is no direct correlation between erythrocyte deformability as measured by filterability and membrane fluidity on entire cells. It appears to be of a great importance to test fluidity on ghosts and on intact cells. Different membrane localisation of the two cholesterol derivatives tested may explain their different impact on membrane.
Abstract: Troxerutine is shown to be of clinical interest in some pathological circumstances particularly in venous insufficiency. One particularly interesting effect of Troxerutine is its hemorheological action. Indeed. it is shown to inhibit the red blood cell hyperaggregation in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present work is to appreciate the effect of Troxerutine on red blood cell aggregation in diabetic angiopathy. Aggregation measurements were performed with Sefam and Myrenne aggregometers. Moreover, hemodynamic and transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements were performed. These measurements might help to better understand the clinical effects of Troxerutine.
Abstract: Uncorrected and corrected blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and whole blood filterability were evaluated in 15 rats submitted to an iron-copper (Fe-Cu) free diet and 15 rats fed with the same diet supplemented with the daily requirement of the two minerals. Hemathological parameters (Hb, MCV, PCV, MCH, white, red blood cell and platelet total counts) were also measured. Fe-Cu deficient rats developed severe microcytic anemia within 7–8 weeks of diet. This was associated with a 43% and 31% decrease of blood viscosity and whole blood filterability, respectively. Higher values of corrected blood viscosity and white cell total counts were found in…anemic respect to control rats fed with Fe-Cu supplemented diet. Results of plasma viscosity were similar in both groups. Our study shows that severe sideropenic anemia is accompanied by hemorheological alterations leading to a significant reduction of whole blood filterability. It is suggested that, in microcytic anemia, microcirculatory flux is impaired and this phenomenon may play an important role in anemia-induced tissue hypoxia.
Keywords: anemia, iron deficiency, hemorheology, blood viscosity, whole blood filterability
Abstract: In a group of 21 subjects with vascular atherosclerotic disease (VAD) we evaluated the cytosolic red cell Ca2+ content (employing Fura-2AM), the total red cell Ca2+ content (using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer) and the erythrocyte membrane fluidity (marking intact red blood cells with pyrene). From the obtained results, it is evident that cytosolic and total red cell Ca2+ content do not distinguish normals from VAD subjects. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity discriminates normals from VAD subjects. No relationship is present between erythrocyte membrane fluidity, total and cytosolic red cell Ca2+ content.
Keywords: Cytosolic red cell Ca2+ content, Total red cell Ca2+ content, Erythrocyte membrane fluidity, Vascular atherosclerotic disease
Abstract: Rheological parameters (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, red blood cell aggregation and red blood cell rigidity) and the plasma proteins fibrinogen, alpha-2-macroglobulin and immunglobulin M were measured in 70 patients with acute anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). In all patients AION was diagnosed by acute decrease of central visual acuity and visual field, typical ophthalmoscopic and angiographic fundus changes and exclusion of other causes of papilledema. The mean values of hematocrit (men 46 ± 4% ,women 43 ± 5%), RBC aggregation (14,0 ± 5,0, normals: 14,6 ± 3,2) and RBC rigidity (0,99 ± 0,07, normals: 1,01 ± 0,09) were equal to…normals. Plasma viscosity (1,40 ± 0,14 mPas, normals: 1,24 ± 0,05 mPas) was increased. A significant correlation was found between plasma viscosity and the plasmaproteins fibrinogen (0,55) and (in women) Immunglobulin M (0,46). Patients with AION and giant cell arteritis showed higher plasma viscosity than patients with AION and no giant cell arteritis. In patients with non-arteritic AION the presence or absence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus seems not to influence the blood rheology. The altered plasma viscosity in AION may be one of the reasons for disturbed microcirculation in AION.
Abstract: Few of paper on alteration in thixotropic properties of blood from patients with cerebral vascular diseases has been found yet. With Low Shear 30 rheometer, we modified the measuring protocol according to Huang's equation and determined the thixotropic parameters of whole blood from 72 male patients with cerebral vascular diseases, thus we compared these parameters with those of blood from healthy subjects matched in sex and age. The results demonstrated that the yield stress, non-Newtonian contribution of viscosity, apparent viscosity (2.37 s−1 ) and the equilibrium value of structure parameters in the patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis (CA, n=14), transient cerebral…ischemic attack (TIA, n=12) and cerebral thrombosis (n=46) were significantly higher than those of corresponding control groups. However, there were no significant changes in hematocrit, Newtonian contribution of viscosity and apparent kinetic rate constant of rouleaux breakdown. No significant differences of the thixotropic parameters existed among groups of CA, TIA and cerebral thrombosis. The results suggest that the patients with cerebral vascular diseases had evidently increased the amount and degree of RBC aggregation. Further more, before onset of cerebral thrombosis the patients with CA and TIA had already obvious change in thixotropy of blood. This probably implies that abnormality of thixotropy of blood is not a trigger factor for ischemic stroke, but a possible subsidiary or an associated risk factors.
Keywords: Hemorheology, thixotropy of blood, RBC aggregation, hematocrit, ischemic stroke
Abstract: Obesity as well as diabetes is associated with modifications of normal blood flow properties. Erythrocyte aggregation, expressed as mean entity of aggregation or MEA, was determined in a group of 83 obese type II diabetic patients and in a group of 148 obese non diabetic subjects. Furthermore 148 non obese and non diabetic individuals were studied as controls. Obese subjects, with and without diabetes, showed significantly higher values of erythrocyte aggregability as compared to controls. Erythrocyte aggregation tended to increase according to the degree of obesity among non diabetic subjects. The rheological abnormality was more…evident among diabetic patients: the highest MEA values were recorded in this group but a correlation with the body mass index was lacking.
Abstract: We studied erythrocyte aggregation parameters in 10 normal subjects and 10 diabetic patients. We measured erythrocyte aggregation on washed erythrocytes resuspended in their own or autologus plasma with 0.40 adjusted hematocrit both with glycosylated or control fibrinogen at different concentrations (from 0.5 g/l to 2.5 g/l). The cross match experiments emphasized the role of RBC suspension medium. No effect has been demonstrated on RBC aggregation with glycosylated fibrinogen.
Abstract: On evaluation of new haemorheological parameters strict criteria had to be applied. The normal range has to be determined by means of a sufficient number of suitable subjects. Sensibility, specificity and predictive value should be known. Internal and external quality controls must be performed in the daily laboratory routine. The design of clinical trials with rheological active substances should be double-blind and placebo-controlled. The method of matched pairs is especially appropriate to achieve homogeneity in placebo and verum groups.
Abstract: Serial measurement of blood rheology is an important part of the assessment of rheological therapy in clinical trials. A nomogram can be used to calculate the number of patients and matched controls required if a trial is to have the statistical power to show a significant difference in rheological tests. This calculation requires prior knowledge of the precision of the test and of the biological variability of the rheological measurement within the patient group.