Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 11, issue 5
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The red cell electrophoretic mobility test by Field and Joyce was used as an adjunct in the diagnosis of 820 clinically acceptable cases of multiple sclerosis. In 90% of the cases the mobility of the red cells was consistent with MS (87% in early and 93% in later cases). In 5% of 109 normal subjects the mobility was consistent with MS. In 4 of 8 cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, in 1 of 7 cerebral infarctions, and in 1 irradiated tumor of 3 brain tumors, the mobility was consistent with MS. The related sensitivity of MRI and red cell electrophoretic…mobility to MS was compared. The relative sensitivity of the MRI and Mobility tests for MS was compared.
Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, Multiple sclerosis, Disseminated sclerosis, Red cell mobility tests, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Abstract: We observed significant cell swelling in the Ringer's and tris based suspension media which can interfere with filtration studies of red cell deformability. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in Ringer's solution increased from 95.6±2.5 fl to 109.2±2.5 fl (N=5,P<0.001) and from 95.4 fl±3.4 fl to 109.9±2.5 fl (N=5,P<0.005) in tris-saline within 2 hours of preparation of the cell suspension. These alterations in cell volume were sufficient to cause significant increases in filtration time when using 3.0 um polycarbonate filters. At 30 mm Hg pressure gradient, Ringer's suspensions showed a three-fold increase in filtration time from 11.48±1.6 sec to 32.71±6.8 sec (N=5,P<0.002),…and in tris-saline, there was a six-fold increase in filtration time from 11.22±0.58 sec to 72.0±14.0 sec (N=5,P<0.001). At 45 mm Hg, in Ringer's suspensions, filtration time increased from 9.03±1.40 sec to 19.48±1.31 sec (N=5,P<0.001). These increases occured independent of hemolysis. Spontaneous cell swelling was prevented by using suspensions prepared with magnesium chloride and phosphate buffered saline. These experiments reveal that spurious changes in cell volume occur during filtration experiments using Ringer's and tris based suspension media and can confound the interpretation of deformability studies.
Abstract: The aim was to define hemorheological changes (and their kinetics) in a non-exercising group of subjects after exposure to moderately high altitude of 2700m. 12 men were transported to this height without marked physical exercise and remained there for 6 days. During this time there was a significant increase in blood and plasma viscosity as well as fibrinogen. Hematocrit, blood cell counts and ESR did not change significantly. All alterations were reversible upon return to normal height. These findings suggest that a viscidation of blood occurs as a result of exposure even to moderate height.
Abstract: Changes in the circulatory behaviour of white cells may contribute to the progression of tissue ischaemia. To investigate whether the therapeutic effects of pentoxifylline might result from an inhibition of white cell activation and rheological changes, we measured the filterability of cell suspensions derived from patients with critical leg ischaemia, before and after infusion of 600mg of this agent. Activation was also assessed, using morphological criteria and by measuring plasma levels of granulocyte elastase. It was found that the flow rate of mononuclear cells through 8 μm pore filters was increased after treatment, but no significant changes were found for…granulocytes or unfractionated white cells. Nor were there any changes in the number of cells judged to be active or in plasma elastase. However, it was noticeable that those patients with worse granulocyte flow or higher levels of activation did tend to show improvement after treatment. Thus there is some evidence of an in vivo affect of pentoxifylline on white cell behaviour, possibly made evident in this study by its ability to reduce the cell response to the process of sample preparation.
Abstract: Blood cell deformability, most often measured as filterability through a polycarbonate filter, is a major determinant of the rheological properties of whole blood. In this study the influence of the suspension medium on the filterability of red cells was studied. We found a considerable variation in filterability between suspensions of red cells in media of different kinds. Thus the cells were suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, alone, in PBS with glucose 0.9 g/l, in PBS with bovine serum albumin (BSA) 2.5, 5.0 and 50 g/l, in PBS with BSA 50 g/l, fibrinogen 0.02 g/l and cholesterol 0.025…g/l, PBS with human plasma 19:1 (i.e. 1 ml plasma added to 19 ml of PBS) and in plasma alone. Photographs of cells in different suspension media were taken in the microscope. The filterability of red cells in PBS was greatly increased by addition of BSA and also the reproducibility was increased, especially at low concentrations of BSA. Red cells suspended in PBS alone, gave visually grossly distorted appearance rut the addition of BSA or human plasma, normalized the morphology of the cells. With human plasma, however, difficulties in reproducing the results were found. It is concluded that the choice of buffer medium is a critical point in blood cell filtration studies. The present study indicates that phosphate buffered saline with low concentration of bovine serum albumin might be a suitable choice.
Abstract: Hemorheologic studies using clinical filtration pressure techniques have suggested that changes in erythrocyte (RBC) deformability occur during left ventricular assist system (LVAS) support. In order to assess whether changes suggested by clinical filtration pressure were associated with alterations in the actual material properties of the membrane complex, micropipette aspiration experiments were performed during NOVACOR LVAS support ranging between 28 and 126 days in four patients. The micropipette aspiration method provides a direct measurement of the surface shear elastic modulus μ of the RBC membrane complex. The modulus consistently fell within the range reported for normals, and no apparent trend with…time was evident. In one instance, however, an abnormal spike in μ, which paralleled clinical filtration data, coincided with symptoms of a transient neurologic event. For the LVAS patients studied, clinical abnormalities in hemorheology as indicated by filtration were not attributed to changes in μ.