Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 10, issue 2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Thirteen male volunteers were submitted twice to a standardized ergometer test up to the point of physical exhaustion, once without and once with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Hematocrit, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation and blood cell filterability (St. George’s Filtrometer) were measured before and immediately after ergometry. Comparing the pre-exercise values, one finds a reduction of red cell aggregation and an increase in red cell deformability following omega-3 supplementation. After exercise there is an increase in red cell aggregation at stasis, plasma viscosity and hematocrit independent of supplementation. Red cell deformability and white cell behavior do not change significantly. The…results confirm that acute exercise profoundly changes blood rheology and suggests that omega-3 fatty acids reduce red cell aggregation and enhance red cell deformability. It follows firstly that exercise can be used as a simple in vivo model to produce certain rheological changes in heal thy volunteers and that secondly omega-3 fatty acids have considerable potential for hemorheological therapy.
Keywords: exercise, omega-3 fatty acids, red cells, leukocytes
Abstract: The HAAKE falling ball microviscometer has been assessed during its routine use as a plasma viscometer in the laboratory over a two year period. The instrument generally performed well with acceptable precision ranges with normal and hyperviscous plasma. The small volume of sample required enhanced its potential as a suitable instrument for the discrete analysis or small batch analysis of Newtonian fluids particularly where the budget is limited.
Abstract: Ten patients (8 males, 2 females) suffering from peripheral obliterative arterial disease (POAD) underwent intravenous administration of Iloprost (2–4 ng/kg/min); each infusion lasted 20 minutes. Assessment of peripheral haemodynamics of haemorheological and metabolic effects and evaluation of variations in tissue O2 transport induced by Iloprost were performed before, at the end, and at regular intervals after the infusion. The i.v. infusion at the dose of 4 ng/kg/min did not induce any variations in regional blood flow. Oxygen extraction per cent (whole lower limb) decreased. Intraerythrocyte 2,3DPG increased, and contemporarily p50 increased indicating a reduction in O2 affinity of…haemoglobin; a decrease in blood viscosity associated with an increase in whole blood filterability was recorded. Haematocrit and fibrinogen values did not change. These findings support the use of Iloprost in patients with peripheral vascular disease.
Abstract: In 18 subjects hospitalized for acute stroke were investigated the effects of 500 ml of glycerol infusion given daily for 3 days on hemorheological parameters. Whole blood and plasma viscosities were slightly but significantly reduced; peak effect occurred 2 hrs and 6 hrs respectively from the end of drug infusion; the same results were obtained after each administration. No changes were found on red cells filterability.
Abstract: The effect of leukapheresis on blood viscosity was studied in 7 patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and extreme hyper leukocytosis (white blood cell counts over 200,000 per µl). All patients had manifestations attributable to leukostasis such as retinal haemorrhage, papilledema, pulmonary infiltrates or phlebitis. A coaxial cylinder viscometer was used to measure the blood viscosity at 37°C and shear rates from 208 to 0.01 sec−1 on paired leukemic blood samples obtained pre- and post-leukapheresis. The leukemic blood viscosity was dependent on leukocrit, total cytocrit and shear rate. The pre-leukapheresis blood viscosity was significantly elevated in 5…patients and 3 of them had viscosity four times higher than normal. Our study documented the presence of blood hyperviscosity associated with hyperleukocytosis not sufficiently compensated by the coexisting anemia in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia, particularly those of younger age or in blast crisis. Leukapheresis resulted in temporary cytoreduction, decreased the blood viscosity, and probably helped to ameliorate leukostasis.
Abstract: The improving effects of isovolemic hemodilution with crystal, colloidal solution and ligustrazine(LT) on the flow behavior of blood and cardiac function after acute myocardial ischemia were observed in 40 anesthetized rabbits. The results shc1wed that mere hemodilution significantly diminished the viscosity of plasma and whole blood(383/s), arid decreased fibrinogen. The left ventricular contractile function(+dp/dtmax and LVSP) was improved significantly, but diastolic function (-dp/dtmax and T values) wasn’t. The effect of hemodilution with colloidal solution on reducing fibrinogen was obvious. The use of LT based on hemodilution with colloidal solution significantly reduced the viscosity of plasma and whole blood at all…shear rate, and fibrinogen. The cardiac contractile and diastolic functions were improved significantly. Physical internal circumstance wasn’t changed significantly with blood gas analysis in the whole experimental process. The results showed that hemodilution could improve the cardiac function after myocardial ischemia, but its effect was only confined to contractile function. The use of LT based on hemodilution could further improve the blood fluidity and overall cardiac function.
Keywords: Hemodilution, cardiac function test, ligustrazine
Abstract: The effect of hemorheologically active agents. denbufylline, pentoxifylline and Zy 16075 were compared on total blood viscosity in vitro . A rotational Contraves Low Shear 30 viscometer was used for measurement. The results showed that these agents were capable of decreasing rat arterial and venous total brood viscosity, the potency being the order of: denbufylline > Zy 16075 > pentoxifylline, in EDTA-anticoagulated rat arterial blood. However, none was effective in human venous blood. The lack of effect in human venous blood was not due to a specific anticoagulant, Since the absence of effectiveness was evident when EDTA, citrate or heparin…was used. Although mechanism(s) remains unknown, the present study has demonstrated that unstressed human venous blood from healthy volunteers is not suitable for detecting a blood viscosity reducing agent, whereas arterial rat blood might be a good tool for detecting such agent.
Keywords: blood viscosity, rat blood, human blood, denbufylline, pentoxifylline
Abstract: Ten patients with intermittent claudication due to chronic obstructive arteriosclerotic disease (COAD) and ten control subjects without vascular disease were studied for the presence of circulating platelet aggregates. Patients exhibited significantly more platelet aggregates in their circulation than did the control subjects. The numbers of platelet aggregates were normalized after 1 1/2 years of therapy with 400 mg pentoxifylline (Trental) three times da1ly in the COAD patients. Higher single doses of pentoxifylline (800 and 1200 mg) given to the COAD patients inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation over a period of 6 hours post-dose.
Abstract: The in vitro effect of O-(β -Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR=Venoruton® ) was tested on rat erythrocyte morphology. The morphological alterations of rat erythrocytes were induced by 2 stresses (storage: 6, 8 and 24 hr - temperature: 25 and 37°C), and the evaluation was performed using either the scanning electron microscopy or the optical microscopy methods. For both stresses we observed a clear change of erythrocyte morphology from a normal shape (discocyte) to abnormal shapes (echinocyte and spheroechinocyte). O-(β -Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides was able to prevent these morphological changes for all the experimental conditions, except for the more severe one (storage: 24 hr, temperature: 37°C).…It is concluded that HR has a protective effect (in vitro) against rat erythrocyte morphological changes. This may be explained by a membrane stabilizing effect and may explain one of the vasculo-protective effect of this drug in pathological conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency where the compound has been shown to be effective.
Keywords: O-(β-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides, Hemorheology, Erythrocyte morphology, In vitro study, rat model
Abstract: While the mechanism of platelet and more recently leukocyte interactions with vessel walls in heart disease have been extensively studied, the phenomenon of red cell binding to endothelium in this condition has not been previously described. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte endothelial cell adherence may be an important component of flow disturbance in patients with myocardial injury venous blood from 31 patients admitted with chest pain suggestive of myocardial infarction or ischemia was compared to blood from acutely ill patients without ischemic injury and normal controls. Red cells separated from white cells and platelets were allowed to adhere to…endothelial cells grown in culture from human umbilical cord veins. Shear force ranging from 0.1 to 55 dynes/cm2 was applied by calibrated fluid flow through a micropipette. Direct visualization by microscope, allowed precise measurement of the stress required to separate individual red cells from the endothelial cell monolayer. In those patients who had documented ischemic damage adherence ranged from 1.3% of red blood cells at 20 dynes/cm2 (the approximate maximum shear stress in venules) to 0.01% RBC at 55 dynes/cm2 , (maximum shear stress in arterioles). In control samples and in hospital patients without documented ischemia, 0.55% cells adhered at 20 dynes/cm2 and less than 0.01% adhered at 55 dynes/cm2 . Autologous plasma increased the percent of maximally adherent cells to 21.9% in patients with unstable angina compared to 1.5% in patients without documented ischemia. Some adherent red cells that separated from the endothelium while under fluid flow conditions, immediately reattached to adjacent endothelial cells, implying that only brief contact is required for adherence to occur. We conclude that in areas of the microcirculation where erythrocyte-endothelial cell contact occurs, abnormal adherence may compromise blood flow and contribute to ischemic injury in some patients with ischemic heart disease.