Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 10, issue 1
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 185.00
Impact Factor 2019: 1.642
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Keywords: Biofluid mechanics, biomechanics, biorheology, endoendothelial fibrin(ogenin) lining, fluid mechanics, hemodynamics, hemorheology, history of medicine, history of science, hydrodynamics, Leonardo da Vinci, perihemorheology, rheology, vessel-blood organ
Abstract: In this study of three normal females and 30 receiving oral contraception (oc) no association was established between plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), corrected for a 45% packed cell volume (PCV), red cell filterability and levels of plasma oestrogen and progesterone levels. In oc users a transient rise in both plasma and whole blood viscosity was recorded after one month with reversal by three months and stabilisation thereafter.
Abstract: Oxpentifylline, a synthetic xanthine derivative with a rheological action on sickle cells in vitro , has been assessed for the treatment of sickle cell painful crisis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of 62 patients. Oxpentifylline was given as a continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum of 96 hours. No statistically significant difference between the placebo and treatment groups was found for the clinical end-points of resolution of local tenderness, restoration of local movement, overall mobility, sleep disturbance, and complete resolution of symptoms.
Abstract: Recently, the cryobiology department of the Strasbourg blood bank developed a new synthetic protective medium, called ESOC, which allows 9 days’ storage of thawed red cells (RBC) at 4°C. The authors studied the biochemical parameters and the in vivo survival rate. In this work, we studied the filterability of thawed erythrocytes preserved in ESOC using a filtration method based on the initial flow rate. We tried to correlate deformability with adenosine-triphosphate and 2,3-diphospho-glycerate levels, and with membrane protein electrophoresis. The same investigations were made on thawed RBC kept without any preservative medium, in physiological saline, and on fresh RBC concentrates…stored in a liquid state, in SAG-Mannitol and ADSOL. After 9 days’ post-thawing storage in ESOC, filterability, viability and respiratory function of the RBC were as well maintained as after 5 days’ storage of fresh RBC in SAG-M and ADSOL. This expiration delay of 9 days fulfills the requirements of most cases of delayed transfusion of thawed blood.
Keywords: erythrocyte deformability, post-thawing conservation, ESOC, conservation medium
Abstract: Previously, we have found that both haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) are lowered between 24h and 72h following endurance exercise. We have subsequently monitored plasma viscosity and related indices in venous blood from 11 young males before and after a 21.1km road race. Over the period of the race, there was a significant reduction in plasma volume (4.3 ± 6.0%, mean ± SD, p<0.05) and an increase in plasma viscosity from 1.60 ± 0.07mPa.s to 1.69 ± 0.09mPa.s (p<0.001). By 6h after the race there was an increase in plasma volume (8.4 ± 6.7%, p<0.001) still evident…at 120h (10.8 ± 4.2%, p<0.001) while plasma viscosity had returned to the pre-race value by 6h post-race and remained stable in all subsequent samples. Between 6h and 120h post-race total serum protein concentrations were not significantly different from that recorded 48h before the race; serum globulin was unaltered and serum albumin slightly reduced (45.5 ± 1.5g.l−1 48h pre-race, 44.7 ± 2.0g.l−1 48h post-race, p<0.01). We conclude that plasma viscosity remains normal despite the plasma volume expansion following endurance exercise and that this is dependent on maintenance of plasma protein concentration.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess whether, and to what extent, hyperviscosity of whole blood should be considered as a potential etiological factor for hearing impairment. Thirty guinea pigs were maintained in decreased atmospheric pressure for different periods of time, between one and eight weeks. The stay in this hypobaric condition induced different degrees of rise in hematocrit. The damage to the cochlea was evaluated by measurements of the compound action potentials.
Abstract: Blood viscosity factors were compared in 28 adult ASA I and II surgical patients during intravenous (14 patients) and halothane (14 patients) anaesthesia lasting 45–60 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, O2 saturation and end-tidal CO2 values were monitored continuously and checked by blood gas and pH analysis. Intravenous fluids (Ringer’s lactate) were limited to 4 ml/kg/hour. While haematocrit was equally reduced (p < 0.005) in both groups, indicating comparable haemodilution, there were in the halothane group significantly greater reductions in (a) blood viscosity at all the five shear rates measured (230, 115, 46, 23 and 11.5 seconds−1…), particularly at the lower two shear rates, (b) plasma viscosity and (c) fibrinogen and albumin concentrations in the plasma. These blood viscosity reductions point to a possible lessening of red blood cell aggregation with halothane anaesthesia, which then could have a rheological advantage over purely intravenous anaesthesia.
Abstract: Erythrocyte suspensions from eight patients suffering from sickle cell disease were incubated (1/2 h, 37°C) with pentoxifylline (10 µg/ml ≈ 40 µmol/l) or nifedipine (1 µg/ml ≈ 4 µmol/l), respectively. The “hemoglobin solubility” was taken as hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant after sedimentation of hemoglobin polymers from deoxygenated solutions by ultracentrifugation. Before and after incubation the concentrations of the intraerythrocytic Ca2+ -ion and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were determined. Both, pentoxifylline and nifedipine, caused an increase in hemoglobin solubility of up to 30 % if the intracellular Ca2+ -ion concentration was lowered from 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10−6 mol to nearly…normal values (0.27 ± 0.10 × 10−6 mol). Concurrently the 2,3-DPG concentration decreased only slightly in both cases. A model is presented that accounts for intracellular Ca2+ -ion concentration as a determining factor of the polymerization of hemoglobin leading to an altered deformability of the red cell.
Abstract: Red cell membrane structural components; the cholesterol and phospholipids are quantified in cases of Hypertension, in order to assess their possible role in contributing to the red cell rigidity in Hypertension. The results indicate a strong positive correlation between the ratio of cholesterol: phospholipid and red cell deformability. Considering the individual correlations, phospholipids show significant negative correlation indicating its importance in regulating the red cell membrane permeability in chronic hypertensives.
Abstract: The surface charge of human erythrocytes and its variations in different experimental conditions were analysed by a Laser-Doppler velocimetry technique. The mean electrophoretic mobility of human erythrocytes was determined in relation to the suspending medium in which ionic strength, pH and viscosity varied. The influence of some proteolytic enzymes (bromelase, neuraminidase) as well as that of AIHA auto-antibodies on electrophoretic mobility was assessed according to the principal known variables (duration of enzymatic treatment, enzyme concentration and type of antibody). The results are discussed with reference to those previously obtained by optical velocimetry.
Abstract: The Second International Symposium on Biofluid Mechanics and Biorheology , a Satellite symposium of the 7. International Congress of Biorheology, Nancy, France, 18–23 June 1989, was held in Munich, F.R. Germany from 25–28 June 1989. Eighty-seven abstracts were selected from nearly 140 submissions. Thirty-one abstracts dealing with clinical studies are published in this issue of CLINICAL HEMORHEOLOGY. Abstracts dealing with theoretical and experimental biofluid mechanics are published in BIORHEOLOGY, 27, Nr. 1, 1989. The main goal of this International symposium was to bring together physicians, physicists, bioengineers, and technical specialists with expertise in clinical, experimental, rheological and numerical…analysis of the complex problems of blood flow and cardiovascular disease. There are many open questions in such areas as heart valve replacement, surgical bypass techniques, ultrasound studies in humans and animals, the reaction of pharmaceuticals, and the role of hemodynamic reaction on the endothelial cells. It is necessary for physicians to understand the flow behavior of blood and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, it is necessary for researchers to make this information available to physicians. Experimental techniques such as ultrasound, laser-Doppler-anemometer, MRI, and flow visualization are dealt with. The approaches being taken in this area are important in defining accurately the parameters of blood flow and refining measuring technology. The hemodynamic environment of the circulatory system-cell, cell-wall interactions, endothelial responses to shear stress and other parameters must also be defined and work in the field of hemorheology is represented by several research groups. Finally, the Abstracts deal with contributions to the field of numerical study of blood flow parameters. without the limitations of physical models or the invasive study of a human subject, the contributions greatly advance knowledge of the cardiovascular system and its dynamics. Leading investigators in the fields of biofluid mechanics and hemorheologists from twenty-two countries around the world participated in the success of the Symposium. I should like to extend special thanks to my colleagues Dr. Gontard Jaster, Prof. Herman Albrich, Dipl.Ing. Helmut Preissler and Mrs. Preissler for their help in organizing the meeting; and to Ms. Joyce McLean and Mr. Axel Poll for their work in organizing the Symposium and preparing the Proceedings for publication.
Abstract: The issue contains four Abstracts of the twelve communications which comprised the Biorheology Symposium, entitled ‘Rheology of Blood and Tissues’. It was organized by the North American Society of Biorheology and presented as part of the 61. Annual Meeting of the Society of Rheology on 25 October 1989, held at Montreal, Canada. The Symposium was organized by Harry L. Goldsmith and Salvatore P. Sutera as a tribute to the late Stanley Mason. Thus, the first presentation covered ‘Stanley Mason’s Contribution to Biorheology’ and was delivered by Harry Goldsmith. six of the remaining eleven communications dealt with the rheology of…blood. Eight Abstracts not dealing with clinical hemorheology are published in Biorheology, 27, Nr. 1, 1990. Five communications were presented under the heading ‘Rheology of Tissues’.