Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 10, issue 1
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Keywords: Biofluid mechanics, biomechanics, biorheology, endoendothelial fibrin(ogenin) lining, fluid mechanics, hemodynamics, hemorheology, history of medicine, history of science, hydrodynamics, Leonardo da Vinci, perihemorheology, rheology, vessel-blood organ
Abstract: In this study of three normal females and 30 receiving oral contraception (oc) no association was established between plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), corrected for a 45% packed cell volume (PCV), red cell filterability and levels of plasma oestrogen and progesterone levels. In oc users a transient rise in both plasma and whole blood viscosity was recorded after one month with reversal by three months and stabilisation thereafter.
Abstract: Oxpentifylline, a synthetic xanthine derivative with a rheological action on sickle cells in vitro , has been assessed for the treatment of sickle cell painful crisis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of 62 patients. Oxpentifylline was given as a continuous intravenous infusion for a maximum of 96 hours. No statistically significant difference between the placebo and treatment groups was found for the clinical end-points of resolution of local tenderness, restoration of local movement, overall mobility, sleep disturbance, and complete resolution of symptoms.
Abstract: Recently, the cryobiology department of the Strasbourg blood bank developed a new synthetic protective medium, called ESOC, which allows 9 days’ storage of thawed red cells (RBC) at 4°C. The authors studied the biochemical parameters and the in vivo survival rate. In this work, we studied the filterability of thawed erythrocytes preserved in ESOC using a filtration method based on the initial flow rate. We tried to correlate deformability with adenosine-triphosphate and 2,3-diphospho-glycerate levels, and with membrane protein electrophoresis. The same investigations were made on thawed RBC kept without any preservative medium, in physiological saline, and on fresh RBC concentrates…stored in a liquid state, in SAG-Mannitol and ADSOL. After 9 days’ post-thawing storage in ESOC, filterability, viability and respiratory function of the RBC were as well maintained as after 5 days’ storage of fresh RBC in SAG-M and ADSOL. This expiration delay of 9 days fulfills the requirements of most cases of delayed transfusion of thawed blood.
Keywords: erythrocyte deformability, post-thawing conservation, ESOC, conservation medium
Abstract: Previously, we have found that both haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) are lowered between 24h and 72h following endurance exercise. We have subsequently monitored plasma viscosity and related indices in venous blood from 11 young males before and after a 21.1km road race. Over the period of the race, there was a significant reduction in plasma volume (4.3 ± 6.0%, mean ± SD, p<0.05) and an increase in plasma viscosity from 1.60 ± 0.07mPa.s to 1.69 ± 0.09mPa.s (p<0.001). By 6h after the race there was an increase in plasma volume (8.4 ± 6.7%, p<0.001) still evident…at 120h (10.8 ± 4.2%, p<0.001) while plasma viscosity had returned to the pre-race value by 6h post-race and remained stable in all subsequent samples. Between 6h and 120h post-race total serum protein concentrations were not significantly different from that recorded 48h before the race; serum globulin was unaltered and serum albumin slightly reduced (45.5 ± 1.5g.l−1 48h pre-race, 44.7 ± 2.0g.l−1 48h post-race, p<0.01). We conclude that plasma viscosity remains normal despite the plasma volume expansion following endurance exercise and that this is dependent on maintenance of plasma protein concentration.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess whether, and to what extent, hyperviscosity of whole blood should be considered as a potential etiological factor for hearing impairment. Thirty guinea pigs were maintained in decreased atmospheric pressure for different periods of time, between one and eight weeks. The stay in this hypobaric condition induced different degrees of rise in hematocrit. The damage to the cochlea was evaluated by measurements of the compound action potentials.
Abstract: Blood viscosity factors were compared in 28 adult ASA I and II surgical patients during intravenous (14 patients) and halothane (14 patients) anaesthesia lasting 45–60 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, O2 saturation and end-tidal CO2 values were monitored continuously and checked by blood gas and pH analysis. Intravenous fluids (Ringer’s lactate) were limited to 4 ml/kg/hour. While haematocrit was equally reduced (p < 0.005) in both groups, indicating comparable haemodilution, there were in the halothane group significantly greater reductions in (a) blood viscosity at all the five shear rates measured (230, 115, 46, 23 and 11.5 seconds−1…), particularly at the lower two shear rates, (b) plasma viscosity and (c) fibrinogen and albumin concentrations in the plasma. These blood viscosity reductions point to a possible lessening of red blood cell aggregation with halothane anaesthesia, which then could have a rheological advantage over purely intravenous anaesthesia.
Abstract: Erythrocyte suspensions from eight patients suffering from sickle cell disease were incubated (1/2 h, 37°C) with pentoxifylline (10 µg/ml ≈ 40 µmol/l) or nifedipine (1 µg/ml ≈ 4 µmol/l), respectively. The “hemoglobin solubility” was taken as hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant after sedimentation of hemoglobin polymers from deoxygenated solutions by ultracentrifugation. Before and after incubation the concentrations of the intraerythrocytic Ca2+ -ion and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were determined. Both, pentoxifylline and nifedipine, caused an increase in hemoglobin solubility of up to 30 % if the intracellular Ca2+ -ion concentration was lowered from 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10−6 mol to nearly…normal values (0.27 ± 0.10 × 10−6 mol). Concurrently the 2,3-DPG concentration decreased only slightly in both cases. A model is presented that accounts for intracellular Ca2+ -ion concentration as a determining factor of the polymerization of hemoglobin leading to an altered deformability of the red cell.