Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 1, issue 5-6
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: The resistance to blood flow is equal to the product of vascular hindrance and blood viscosity, which is a function of hematocrit, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation and red cell deformability. These hemorheo1ogical components can be assessed by using a systematic approach. Data obtained from patients with hematological disorders (polycythemia, multiple myeloma, sialic acid deficiency and sickle cell disease) indicate that abnormalities in one rheological component may be associated with either coexisting abnormalities or compensatory changes in other components. Correlation with in vivo hemodynamic functions has shown that hemorheological abnormalities may affect flow resistance and oxygen transport and that…a normal cardiovascular system has the capacity to compensate for these disturbances, e.g. , by vasodilation. Hemorheological abnormalities are also found to exist in cardiovascular diseases (e.g. , myocardial infarction, hypertension and peripheral vascular disease). Although these abnormalities are milder than those found in hematological disorders, their pathophysiological significance is enhanced by the mutual amplification, rather than compensation, of the disturbances in hemorheological and cardiovascular functions. Improvement of blood rheology is a promising approach in the treatment of circulatory diseases.
Abstract: Apparent stationary viscosity, viscoelasticity and thixotropy measured with a Couette viscometer, as well as morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy have been determined on blood samples stored in plastic bags at 4 °C in the following anticoagulant and/or preservative solutions: 1) Whole blood in CPD, CPD added with 0.4 mM adenine and enriched with glucose (1.5 time the normal concentration) (CPD-A,D) and ACD with 0.5 mM adenine and 0.25 mM guanosine (ACD-A,Gua); 2) Packed cells from blood collected in CPD, CPD-A,D and ACD-A,Gua; 3) Red blood cells from blood collected in CPD or ACD and resuspended with isotonic saline, adenine, glucose…(SAG), or phosphate, adenine, guanosine, glucose, saline (PAGGS) solutions. Addition of adenine and guanosine to ACD improves the morphological and rheological qualities of stored blood. However, the greatest improvement is obtained with CPD/SAG and CPD/PAGGS in which the lower variations of the measured parameters are observed as a function of time. For example, the relative viscosity increase and the discocyte number decrease observed since the first week in whole CPD blood, are found identical only at the 4th or 5th week in CPD/PAGGS.
Abstract: The rheological characteristics of laser irradiated fresh anticoagulated blood samples, before and after treatment with ATP, glucose, ATP-glucose and onion extract are determined. The erythrocytes show crenation and enhanced tendency of hemolysis with the increase of duration of exposure. The blood viscosity decreases as the exposure level increases at all shear rates. The erythrocytes before and after irradiation are mixed with ATP, glucose and ATP-glucose and are incubated at 37 °C. These cells do not recover from the changes induced by the laser radiation. The erythrocytes treated with onion extract and then incubated, show their normal appearance. The rheological characteristics of…various irradiated samples are compared with that of the normal blood.
Abstract: The erythrocytes sedimentation profiles under gravitational field of various blood samples, exposed at different laser irradiation levels, are studied. It is observed that the sedimentation of erythrocytes, depending on the exposure level, tends to vary. The distribution profiles at various heights of blood column in the sample holder, exposed at 1000 mJ/cm2 , have distinct appearance compared to normal blood and blood samples exposed at lower levels.
Abstract: The erythrocytes sedimentation profiles in various diseases and pregnancy have been observed and are compared with those obtained from the normal subject. It has been observed that the sedimentation profiles, at various points of the blood column, depend on the clinical status of the individual. In diseases like cancer and tuberculosis these profiles are significantly different from the patterns observed in other diseases. In pregnancy this pattern is different from those of the diseased and normal subjects. The analysis of these profiles at various points provides valuable information on the roles of various plasma and cellular constituents.
Abstract: Biochemical and haemorheological findings on 10 patients with multiple myeloma and on one with cryoglobulinaemia undergoing plasmaphaeresis or plasma exchange are referred to. Renal failure was present in 7 subjects. After treatment an improvement of renal function was observed in all patients but one. Plasmaphaeresis and plasma exchange were able to reduce the value of plasma and blood viscosity, when it was abnormally high. The effect of the exchange of plasma on the laboratory findings of renal failure and on blood and plasma viscosity appears to be sufficiently ascertained in the present study. Plasma exchange was more efficient than plasmaphaeres…is but the latter was free of any complication. The major indications are: acute renal failure, hyperproteinaemia, hyperviscosity. Benefits can also be obtained in the chronic course of disease when biochemical and rheological parameters are severely impaired.
Abstract: Rheological properties of neonatal and adult blood, adjusted to fixed hematocrits, were measured using a capillary (100 µm diameter) and a cone-plate viscometer. Compared to adults, the newborn infant’s plasma viscosity was significantly lower (P<0.005). Capillary viscosity of neonatal blood adjusted to hematocrits of 0.15 to 0.70 l/l was also lower, particularly at higher hematocrits. Viscosity of whole blood adjusted to a hematocrit of 0.60 l/l,measured with the cone-plate viscometer, was markedly lower in neonates, while the viscosity of RBC suspended in an albuminated buffer as well as the relative viscosity (i.e. ratio of blood to plasma viscosity) was similar…in neonates and adults. Hemoglobin flux through the 100 µm-tubes was higher in newborn infants at any hematocrit with a maximum at a hematocrit of 0.45 to 0.50 l/l compared to a peak flux at 0.40 l/l in adults. These results suggest that the main difference in rheological properties between neonatal and adult blood lies in the lower plasma viscosity of the neonates resulting in decreased blood viscosity and increased hemoglobin flux through tubes.