Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Volume 1, issue 2
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Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, a peer-reviewed international scientific journal, serves as an aid to understanding the flow properties of blood and the relationship to normal and abnormal physiology. The rapidly expanding science of hemorheology concerns blood, its components and the blood vessels with which blood interacts. It includes perihemorheology, i.e., the rheology of fluid and structures in the perivascular and interstitial spaces as well as the lymphatic system. The clinical aspects include pathogenesis, symptomatology and diagnostic methods, and the fields of prophylaxis and therapy in all branches of medicine and surgery, pharmacology and drug research.
The endeavour of the Editors-in-Chief and publishers of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation is to bring together contributions from those working in various fields related to blood flow all over the world. The editors of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation are from those countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and America where appreciable work in clinical hemorheology and microcirculation is being carried out. Each editor takes responsibility to decide on the acceptance of a manuscript. He is required to have the manuscript appraised by two referees and may be one of them himself. The executive editorial office, to which the manuscripts have been submitted, is responsible for rapid handling of the reviewing process.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation accepts original papers, brief communications, mini-reports and letters to the Editors-in-Chief. Review articles, providing general views and new insights into related subjects, are regularly invited by the Editors-in-Chief. Proceedings of international and national conferences on clinical hemorheology (in original form or as abstracts) complete the range of editorial features.
The following professionals and institutions will benefit most from subscribing to
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: medical practitioners in all fields including hematology, cardiology, geriatrics, angiology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otology, and neurology. Pharmacologists, clinical laboratories, blood transfusion centres, manufacturing firms producing diagnostic instruments, and the pharmaceutical industry will also benefit.
Important new topics will increasingly claim more pages of
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation: the role of hemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances for epidemiology and prognosis, in particular regarding cardiovascular disorders, as well as its significance in the field of geriatrics. Authors and readers are invited to contact the editors for specific information or to make suggestions.
Abstract: Twelve patients suffering from severe coronary artery occlusions and 24 patients with chest pains (but no evidence of coronary occlusion) have been investigated for blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and rigidity (Tk) of red cells, both prior to and after the submaximal (bike ergometer) exercise tests. Blood viscosity (measured at shear rate of 180 rec. sec.) was found to correlate significantly with the diastolic blood pressure in patients with severe coronary occlusions, both at rest and during/after the exercise test. Blood viscosity correlated significantly with the diastolic blood pressure in patients with chest pains only after the exercise test. Haematocrit did…not correlate with the diastolic blood pressure. However, all patients, and all men, showed significant and positive correlations between diastolic blood pressure (at rest or at maximum) and the rigidity (Tk) of red cells (the latter calculated from the blood viscosity equation). Blood viscosity and rigidity of red cells were increased in patients at P < 0.001 when compared with normal values.
Abstract: A positive-pressure, washed-erythrocyte method for the measurement of red cell filterability has been compared with a negative-pressure, whole-blood technique. Using 5 µm pore-size polycarbonate filters, both methods detected a sub-population of 4–5 × 107 /l glutaraldehyde-hardened erythrocytes and both showed a decrease in erythrocyte filterability in proportion to increasing concentrations of added fibrinogen. The washed-erythrocyte method gave better reproducibility with less variation between filter batches and is recommended for the study of patients in whom plasma hyperproteinaemia may adversely affect erythrocyte filtration.
Abstract: Diabetic erythrocytes have recently been reported to have reduced deformability. This conclusion is based on studies using 5 micron polycarbonate filters or 4 micron glass pipets. The diabetic erythrocytes interact with the artificial surfaces during passage making it possible that the increased drag observed is an artifact not pertinent to capillary flow. In order to eliminate this possibility we have suspended diabetic and nondiabetic erythrocytes in nonaggregating physiologic media and studied their viscosity in a Couette viscometer with guard ring, an instrument in which red cell-artificial surface interactions are not of consequence. Shear rates ranged from .025 to 125 hertz.…Two studies were done. In the first study cells of eight diabetic and eight nondiabetic subjects were compared in phosphate-buffered saline without added dextran. Viscosity elevation, seen only at low shear rate, did not achieve statistical significance. The second study compared cells from nine diabetic and nine nondiabetic subjects. Addition of 0.5% dextran (100,000–200,000 daltons) to the suspending medium more than doubled low shear rate viscosity and allowed demonstration of a statistically significant viscosity elevation limited to shear rates below 1.3 hertz. Limitation of increased flow resistance to this low shear rate range suggests that each diabetic erythrocyte’s ability to bend during flow is impaired, burdening its passage through the microcirculation.
Abstract: Blood samples of 80 subjects were tested for blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, aggregation of red cells, and rigidity of cells in the presence and absence of drug MJ12880. There was a slight overall decrease of viscosity in the presence of the drug, although two specific responses were recognized: a positive response, in which there was a significant decrease in the viscosity factors, and a negative response in which there was a significant increase in the viscosity factors. A significant decrease of blood viscosity and a significant decrease in the rigidity of red cells has been observed after addition of drug…in about half of blood samples obtained from cancer patients, and in one-third of blood samples from the cardiovascular and hypertensive patients. There was a significant difference in blood viscosity factors between potentially negative and potentially positive responders prior to the addition of drug. In general, samples of higher viscosity tended to respond by decreasing blood viscosity and rigidity of red cells; while samples of low viscosity tended to respond by increasing blood viscosity.
Keywords: blood viscosity, erythrocyte rigidity, drug MJ12880
Abstract: An evaluation has been made of the Contraves LS 30, Haake CV 100, and Wells-Brookfield viscometers. The value of the Contraves system for blood viscosity measurements at shear rates below 1 s−l has been confirmed, but red cell settling and the method used for haematocrit correction were found to be important technical variables. Use of a guard ring was not beneficial. This study has demonstrated a number of technical factors that must be carefully standardised to allow inter-departmental comparability of viscosity measurements at low-shear rates in clinical studies.
Abstract: Turbulent or highly disturbed flow in the normal resting human being is limited to the vicinity of the aortic and pulmonary valves (1) and perhaps turbulence may also be present within the heart. The clinical importance of turbulence is related to the detection and interpretation of cardiac murmurs and arterial bruits. Some aspects of the configuration of arterial pressures relate to turbulence. Of pathophysiological significance is the possibility that turbulence may contribute to the formation of arterial aneurysms. The related high shear stresses of turbulence may contribute to platelet activation. This may relate to thrombosis in the region of prosthetic…valves, and there is speculation that platelet activation may participate in the degenerative process of stenotic valves and perhaps in the continuing disease process of atherosclerosis. The possible pathophysiological consequences of turbulence recently have been reviewed (1).
Keywords: Turbulence, murmurs, arterial pressure, blood flow velocity, cardiovascular system