Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 4, issue 6
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The aim of
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering is to promote the welfare of humans and to help them keep healthy. This international journal is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research papers, review articles and brief notes on materials and engineering for biological and medical systems.
Articles in this peer-reviewed journal cover a wide range of topics, including, but not limited to: Engineering as applied to improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of disease and injury, and better substitutes for damaged or disabled human organs; Studies of biomaterial interactions with the human body, bio-compatibility, interfacial and interaction problems; Biomechanical behavior under biological and/or medical conditions; Mechanical and biological properties of membrane biomaterials; Cellular and tissue engineering, physiological, biophysical, biochemical bioengineering aspects; Implant failure fields and degradation of implants. Biomimetics engineering and materials including system analysis as supporter for aged people and as rehabilitation; Bioengineering and materials technology as applied to the decontamination against environmental problems; Biosensors, bioreactors, bioprocess instrumentation and control system; Application to food engineering; Standardization problems on biomaterials and related products; Assessment of reliability and safety of biomedical materials and man-machine systems; and Product liability of biomaterials and related products.
Abstract: The method of ensemble averaging (EA), commonly used to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in evoked potential measurements, loses potentially useful information regarding response variability across trials. Due to the usually low SNR, it is difficult to extract the response from individual trials. The present paper describes an adaptive signal enhancer (ASE) that is capable of tracking the variation of visual evoked potential (VEP) from trial to trial as well as improving SNR. This ASE requires two inputs: a primary input, which is the raw noise-corrupted response, and a reference input, which is designed for an optimal performance of ASE. We…used moving ensemble averaging (MEA) to form the dynamic reference input. Experimental results in humans show a satisfactory performance of the ASE in determining VEP to single stimulus and in tracking the temporal changes of the signal.
Abstract: Current mathematical models for describing pulse propagation in arteries are summarized. These models include the effects of viscoelasticity, frequency dependent friction, and other factors. One factor that has not been previously considered is the effect of distributed flow leakage. This leakage is known to have a significant effect on pulse propagation in rigid tubes and it has been assumed to have a similar effect in compliant tubes. These effects are described here, along with the results of a recent study by these authors on the effects of the distributed flow leakage in compliant tubes.
Abstract: Bone filling substances are needed to meet several requirements including nontoxicity, setting time, changes in pH values, and amount of dissolved elements as well as mechanical properties. In this study, the bone-generating composites were prepared by employing the in vivo absorbable (β-tricalcium phosphate as a parent matrix kneaded with CaO, MgO, and ZnO as bone mineral additives with different compositions. The setting time, pH values, compressive strength were investigated as a function of the amount of these bone mineral additives. It was found that the setting time was shortened by increasing CaO, MgO, and ZnO contents. Increasing ZnO contents resulted…in the pH value lower, while the pH values increased by increasing CaO and MgO contents. Increasing ZnO contents caused the compressive strength stronger, on the other hand, the compressive strength was weakened by increasing MgO contents. Furthermore, calcium appears to be selectively released from the hardened composite sample.
Keywords: chitosan, β-tricalcium phosphate, bone filling paste, calcium ion release, compressive strength, pH values
Abstract: The present study has examined the efficacy of shock wave treatment to aid in the removal of bone cement in human cadaver femora after femoral prosthesis implantation. The shock waves were applied to the specimens at four points, in the circumference 90° apart, at three levels. Four hundred shocks were applied at each point with intensity level of 25 kV. Extraction time of the bone cement was significantly (p<0.002) faster in the treated versus untreated control groups. The average extraction time was decreased by 32%. Shock wave treatment also reduced the amount of residual cement inside the bone surface by…an average of 55% (p<0.006). The number of shocks needed to remove the prosthesis from bone cement also decreased significantly (p<0.001) after shock wave treatment.
Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, revision total hip joint surgery, interface, bone cement, extraction